Sanjay Singh

Work place: IC Design Group CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani - 333031, Rajasthan, India.



Research Interests: Image Manipulation, Image Compression, Computer Architecture and Organization, Computer Vision


Sanjay Singh is working as Scientist in CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rajasthan, India. He is Member of IEEE - USA, IACSIT - Singapore, and IAENG - Hong Kong. Currently, he is involved in various projects sponsored by Indian Government on Computer Vision and Smart Cameras. His research interests are VLSI architectures for image & video processing algorithms, FPGA Prototyping, and Computer Vision. Prior to joining this research lab, he received his Master in Technology, Master in Electronics, and Bachelor in Science in 2007, 2005, and 2003 respectively from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India. He earned Gold Medal (First Position in University) during his Master in Technology and Master in Electronics. He topped college during his Bachelor in Science. He received more than 20 Merit Certificates and Scholarships during his academic career.

Author Articles
Real-time Object Tracking with Active PTZ Camera using Hardware Acceleration Approach

By Sanjay Singh Ravi Saini Sumeet Saurav Anil Kumar Saini

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2017

This paper presents the design and implementation of a dedicated hardware (VLSI) architecture for real-time object tracking. In order to realize the complete system, the designed VLSI architecture has been integrated with different input/output video interfaces. These video interfaces along with the designed object tracking VLSI architecture have been coded using VHDL, simulated using ModelSim, and synthesized using Xilinx ISE tool chain. A working prototype of complete object tracking system has been implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T) FPGA board. The implemented system is capable of tracking the moving target object in real-time in PAL (720x576) resolution live video stream directly coming from the camera. Additionally, the implemented system also provides the real-time desired camera movement to follow the tracked object over a larger area. 

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Prototyping an Automated Video Surveillance System Using FPGAs

By Sanjay Singh Sumeet Saurav Chandra Shekhar Anil Vohra

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Aug. 2016

Because of increasing terrorist activities, the resolution of video cameras and the number of cameras deployed for surveillance are increasing exponentially – producing huge amount of video data. Manual analysis of this large volume of video data by human operators for crime scene and forensic analysis is neither reliable nor scalable. This has generated enormous interest in research activities related to automation of video surveillance systems which allows real-time automatic extraction and analysis of information from live incoming video streams and enables automatic detection and tracking of targets without human intervention. To meet the real-time requirements of automated video surveillance systems, very different technologies and design methodologies have been used in literature. These range from use of General Purpose Processors (GPPs) or special purpose Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) or Applications Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs) or even programmable logic devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). FPGAs provide real-time performance that is hard to achieve with GPPs/DSPs, limit the extensive design work, time, and cost required for ASICs, and allow algorithmic changes in later stages of system development. Due to these features FPGAs are being increasingly used for prototyping automated video surveillance system quickly. In this paper we present the top level description of a complete automated video surveillance system along with the elaboration of different challenges/issues involved in its design and implementation, a comparative analysis of design methodologies and existing FPGA platforms, complete design flow for prototyping the FPGA-based automated video surveillance system, and details of various primary input/output interfaces required for designing smart automated video surveillance systems for future.

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Moving Object Detection Scheme for Automated Video Surveillance Systems

By Sanjay Singh Sumeet Saurav Chandra Shekhar Anil Vohra

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Jul. 2016

In every automated video surveillance system, moving object detection is an important pre-processing step leading to the extraction of useful information regarding moving objects present in a video scene. Most of the moving object detection algorithms require large memory space for storage of background related information which makes their implementation a difficult task on embedded platforms which are typically constrained by limited resources. Therefore, in order to overcome this limitation, in this paper we present a memory optimized moving object detection scheme for automated video surveillance systems with an objective to facilitate its implementation on standalone embedded platforms. The presented scheme is a modified version of the original clustering-based moving object detection algorithm and has been coded using C/C++ in the Microsoft Visual Studio IDE. The moving object detection results of the proposed memory efficient scheme were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared with the original clustering-based moving object detection algorithm. The experimental results revealed that there is 58.33% reduction in memory requirements in case of the presented memory efficient moving object detection scheme for storing background related information without any loss in accuracy and robustness as compared to the original clustering based scheme.

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Interfacing the Analog Camera with FPGA Board for Real-time Video Acquisition

By Sanjay Singh Anil Kumar Saini Ravi Saini

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Mar. 2014

Advances in FPGA technology have dramatically increased the use of FPGAs for computer vision applications. The primary task for development of such FPGAs based systems is the interfacing of the analog camera with FPGA board. This paper describes the design and implementation of camera interface module required for connecting analog camera with Xilinx ML510 (Virtex–5 FXT) FPGA board having no video input port. Digilent VDEC1 video daughter card is used for digitizing the analog video into digital form. The necessary control logics for video acquisition and video display are designed using VHDL and Verilog, simulated in ModelSim, and synthesized using Xilinx ISE 12.1. Designed and implemented interfaces provide the real-time video acquisition and display.

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Performance Evaluation of Different Memory Components for FPGA based Embedded System Design for Video Processing Application

By Sanjay Singh Ravi Saini Anil K. Saini AS Mandal Chandra Shekhar Anil Vohra

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Nov. 2013

Advances in FPGA technology have dramatically increased the use of FPGAs for computer vision applications. Availability of on-chip processor (like PowerPC) made it possible to design embedded systems using FPGAs for video processing applications. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different memory components available on FPGA boards for embedded/platform-based implementations of image/video processing applications. The clustering based change detection algorithm for Ubiquitous Multimedia Environment is selected for evaluating the effect of different memory components (DDR/BRAM) on performance of the system in terms of frame rate (frames per second).

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A Comparative Analysis of Image Scaling Algorithms

By Chetan Suresh Sanjay Singh Ravi Saini Anil Kumar Saini

DOI:, Pub. Date: 28 Apr. 2013

Image scaling, fundamental task of numerous image processing and computer vision applications, is the process of resizing an image by pixel interpolation. Image scaling leads to a number of undesirable image artifacts such as aliasing, blurring and moiré. However, with an increase in the number of pixels considered for interpolation, the image quality improves. This poses a quality-time trade off in which high quality output must often be compromised in the interest of computation complexity. This paper presents a comprehensive study and comparison of different image scaling algorithms. The performance of the scaling algorithms has been reviewed on the basis of number of computations involved and image quality. The search table modification to the bicubic image scaling algorithm greatly reduces the computational load by avoiding massive cubic and floating point operations without significantly losing image quality.

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Real-time FPGA Based Implementation of Color Image Edge Detection

By Sanjay Singh Anil Kumar Saini Ravi Saini

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Nov. 2012

Color Image edge detection is very basic and important step for many applications such as image segmentation, image analysis, facial analysis, objects identifications/tracking and many others. The main challenge for real-time implementation of color image edge detection is because of high volume of data to be processed (3 times as compared to gray images). This paper describes the real-time implementation of Sobel operator based color image edge detection using FPGA. Sobel operator is chosen for edge detection due to its property to counteract the noise sensitivity of the simple gradient operator. In order to achieve real-time performance, a parallel architecture is designed, which uses three processing elements to compute edge maps of R, G, and B color components. The architecture is coded using VHDL, simulated in ModelSim, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 10.1 and implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T) FPGA platform. The complete system is working at 27 MHz clock frequency. The measured performance of our system for standard PAL (720x576) size images is 50 fps (frames per second) and CIF (352x288) size images is 200 fps.

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