Ibrahim Habibat Ojochogwu

Work place: Salem Salem University Lokoja, Km 16 Lokoja-Ajaokuta Rd, Department of Physics, Ajakuta,160001, Nigeria

E-mail: habibat.ojochogwu@salemuniversity.edu.ng


Research Interests: Solid Modeling, Computer systems and computational processes, Wireless Networks, Wireless Communication, Information Systems, Mathematical Analysis


Mrs. Ibrahim Habibat Ojochogwu is a lecturer at Salem Salem University Lokoja, Km 16 Lokoja-Ajaokuta Rd, 263106. She obtained her first degree in Physics Education at Kogi State University, Nigeria. She is currently on her M.Sc. Degree in the Department of Physics, Federal University, Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. Her area of Interest is Radio wave propagation modeling and impact analysis on Wireless Communication Systems Networks.

Author Articles
Tropical Rain Intensity Impact on Raindrop Diameter and Specific Signal Attenuation at Microwaves Communication Link

By Isabona Joseph Ibrahim Habibat Ojochogwu Ituabhor Odesanya

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijigsp.2023.02.06, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Realistic knowledge of rainfall characteristics and modeling parameters such as size, shape, and drop size distribution is essential in numerous areas of scientific, engineering, industrial and technological applications. Some key application areas include, but not limited to microphysics analysis of precipitation composition phenomenon, weather prediction, signal attenuations forecasting, signal processing, remote sensing, radar meteorology, stormwater management and cloud photo detection. In this contribution, the influence of rain intensity on raindrop diameter and specific attenuation in Lokoja, a typical climate region of Nigeria is investigated and reported. Three different rain rates classes obtained due to heavy rainfall depth, heavy rainfall depth, and heavy rainfall depth have been explored for the raindrop size distribution analysis. The three-parameter lognormal and Weibull models were utilised to estimate the influence of rain rates on the drop sizes and specific rainfall attenuation in the study location. For Lognormal model, the maximum raindrop concentration occurred approximately at diameter of 1 mm before showing downfall performance trends as the drop diameter increases. In the case of Weilbull model, the maximum raindrop concentration occurred at different drop diameter with the three rain rate classes, before showing downfall concentration trends with increasing rain drop diameter values. By means of the two models, the highest raindrops concentration values attained in correspondence with the specific rain attenuation were made by drop diameters not more than 2.5 mm. In terms of rain rate, specific attenuation and frequency connection, the results disclose that attenuation of propagated electromagnetic waves increases at increasing rainfall depth and increasing operating frequency bands. The results also disclose that the specific attenuation is directly proportional to the increase in rain intensity levels in correspondent with the operational frequency. As a case in point, at 4GHz frequency, the attenuation level of about 20 dB/km level is attained for mean, minimum and maximum rain rates of 29.12, 12.23 and 50.22 mm/hr, respectively. But as the frequency increased from 4GHz to 20GHz, the attenuation level almost doubles from 20 to 45dB/km at still same rain rates. The above performance is so, because at higher radio-microwave frequencies, the wavelength of the propagated electromagnetic waves approaches the mean diameter of the raindrop. The results display gradual increase in attenuation levels as the diameter rain drop sizes and intensity increases or become broader. The attenuation grows because the raindrops interfere, distort, absorb and scatter major portion of the microwave energy. However, the gradual trend in the attenuation level increase becomes slower and tending to logarithm stability at larger rain drop values. This may suggest that the attenuation level may come to equilibrium state at higher rain drop diameters. The resultant outcome of this work can assist microwaves communication engineers and relevant stakeholders in the telecommunication sector with expedient information needed to manage specific attenuation problems over Earth–space links communication channels, particualry during rainy seasons.

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Empirical Rain-based Attenuation Quantification and Impact Analysis on 5G New Radio Networks at 3.5GHz Broadband Frequency

By Ibrahim Habibat Ojochogwu Isabona Joseph Ituabhor Odesanya

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijigsp.2022.06.04, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2022

Today, rain remains one key and well-known natural phenomenon that offsets and attenuates the propagated radio, microwave, and millimeter-wave signals at different transmission frequencies and wavelengths over propagation paths. Specialised rain attenuation studies can be utilized to analyze their stochastic behavior on propagated radio signals and also come up with appropriate rain attenuation model for network application planning and optimisations. In this contribution, empirical rainfall depths data has been acquired, effectively categorized, and employed to examine the implicative intensity level trends over a ten years period, starting from 2011 to 2020.  More importantly, the Recommendation ITU-R P.1511 power-based model combined with the acquired categorized rainfall depths data has been explored to prognostically estimate and quantity the amount of specific attenuation loss due over 3.5G transmission frequency. The results reveal that the level of attenuation attained versus 0.01% percentage of time depends on the type of rain intensity levels (heavy rain, very heavy rain, extremely heavy rain), which in turn is dependent upon rain depth or rate drop sizes. As a case in point, 0.001 percent of the time due to heavy rain, the amount of specific attenuation attained stood at 2dB, while for very heavy and extremely heavy rain, the specific attenuation levels amount to 2.3dB and 4dB respectively. These different amounts of specific attenuation simplify imply that the heavier the rain, the more scattering, and absorption the propagated electromagnetic signals undergo, thus leading to degraded and higher attenuation levels. The empirical based-rain attenuation quantification and impact analysis method explored in this paper will significantly provide radio network engineers with the best way to monitor and evaluate the radio attenuation effect over a propagation channel.

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