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Lognormal model, Weilbull model, Rain rate, Rain attenuation, Raindrop concentration, Raindrop diameter, Specific attenuation
Realistic knowledge of rainfall characteristics and modeling parameters such as size, shape, and drop size distribution is essential in numerous areas of scientific, engineering, industrial and technological applications. Some key application areas include, but not limited to microphysics analysis of precipitation composition phenomenon, weather prediction, signal attenuations forecasting, signal processing, remote sensing, radar meteorology, stormwater management and cloud photo detection. In this contribution, the influence of rain intensity on raindrop diameter and specific attenuation in Lokoja, a typical climate region of Nigeria is investigated and reported. Three different rain rates classes obtained due to heavy rainfall depth, heavy rainfall depth, and heavy rainfall depth have been explored for the raindrop size distribution analysis. The three-parameter lognormal and Weibull models were utilised to estimate the influence of rain rates on the drop sizes and specific rainfall attenuation in the study location. For Lognormal model, the maximum raindrop concentration occurred approximately at diameter of 1 mm before showing downfall performance trends as the drop diameter increases. In the case of Weilbull model, the maximum raindrop concentration occurred at different drop diameter with the three rain rate classes, before showing downfall concentration trends with increasing rain drop diameter values. By means of the two models, the highest raindrops concentration values attained in correspondence with the specific rain attenuation were made by drop diameters not more than 2.5 mm. In terms of rain rate, specific attenuation and frequency connection, the results disclose that attenuation of propagated electromagnetic waves increases at increasing rainfall depth and increasing operating frequency bands. The results also disclose that the specific attenuation is directly proportional to the increase in rain intensity levels in correspondent with the operational frequency. As a case in point, at 4GHz frequency, the attenuation level of about 20 dB/km level is attained for mean, minimum and maximum rain rates of 29.12, 12.23 and 50.22 mm/hr, respectively. But as the frequency increased from 4GHz to 20GHz, the attenuation level almost doubles from 20 to 45dB/km at still same rain rates. The above performance is so, because at higher radio-microwave frequencies, the wavelength of the propagated electromagnetic waves approaches the mean diameter of the raindrop. The results display gradual increase in attenuation levels as the diameter rain drop sizes and intensity increases or become broader. The attenuation grows because the raindrops interfere, distort, absorb and scatter major portion of the microwave energy. However, the gradual trend in the attenuation level increase becomes slower and tending to logarithm stability at larger rain drop values. This may suggest that the attenuation level may come to equilibrium state at higher rain drop diameters. The resultant outcome of this work can assist microwaves communication engineers and relevant stakeholders in the telecommunication sector with expedient information needed to manage specific attenuation problems over Earth–space links communication channels, particualry during rainy seasons.
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