Balakrishnan Muniandy

Work place: Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia



Research Interests: Multimedia Information System


Prof. Dr. Balakrishnan Muniandy is a lecturer in the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. In teaching, he has been focusing on multimedia authoring, management and evaluation of multimedia project, instructional design and delivery and research methods and issues in instructional multimedia. Dr.Balakrishnan received his PhD in Educational Leadership (Educational Technology) from the Department of Leadership, Technology & Administration (DELTA), University of Oregon, United States of America.

Author Articles
Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning: How Emotional Intelligence Moderates Learning

By Jeya Amantha Kumar Balakrishnan Muniandy Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 May 2016

This study is designed as a preliminary study to explore the effects of emotional intelligence (EI) on achievement, perceived intrinsic motivation and perceived satisfaction when expose to an emotional designed Multimedia Learning Environment (MLE) that was designed to induce either positive, neutral or negative emotions. All three designs had similar content and narration but differed in visual element such as colour, font size, font style and images. Based on the findings, it was reported that students performed better in the design used to induce negative emotion (NegD design) followed by the positive (PosD) and Neutral (NeuD). There is no significant difference in levels of emotional intelligence towards these learning outcomes; however, students with Low EI performed better overall. EI only qualified perceived satisfaction when using a MLE designed to induce emotions and it was found that students with Low EI preferred the design that induces positive emotions. In addition, High EI students favored designs with emotionality (positive or negative) compared to neutral design.

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Comparing the Acceptance of Key Performance Indicators Management Systems on Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use in a Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

By Mei Yean ONG Balakrishnan Muniandy Saw Lan ONG Keow Ngang TANG Kia Kien PHUA

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Oct. 2012

This article discusses the findings of a study that elucidated users’ acceptance of two management systems for key performance indicators (KPIs) in terms of their usefulness and ease of use scores at a higher education institution in Malaysia. The two management systems were Key Performance Indicators Monitoring System (KPI-MS) and Excel Spreadsheet System (ESS). ESS is a system developed using Microsoft Excel and has been in used since the year 2008 in the institution to calculate KPIs marks. The ESS system, however, has several shortcomings, and the KPI-MS system was developed with the intention to replace ESS. KPI-MS is an online KPI performance monitoring system which allows users to access the system wherever and whenever they want using a web browser. In addition, KPI-MS is designed as an intelligent system that is able to process raw data automatically to produce results that can be easily visualized in a graphical manner. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on the acceptance of both systems. A total of 78 participants who were involved in KPI data processing from all 42 schools and centres in the higher education institution in Malaysia participated in this study. The instrument of this study was adapted and modified from Davis’ Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). This instrument was content-validated by three experts in the related field and the reliability index computed with Cronbach alpha was 0.955. A descriptive analysis was conducted to compare the mean scores of both KPI-MS and ESS rated by the users. The results showed that the users rated KPI-MS as a very useful system in monitoring KPI performance of their schools or centres compared to ESS. Also, users rated the KPI-MS to be significantly easier (p≤0.01) and more enjoyable to use. In conclusion, it is recommended that KPI-MS should replace the ESS system in managing KPIs data.

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The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Students’ Attitude Towards Computers: A Study on Polytechnic Engineering Students

By Jeya Amantha Kumar Balakrishnan Muniandy Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Sep. 2012

Computers are perceived as an important tool in the world of education. Computer technology today when used in teaching and learning could open the world to students. However when learning is concern, emotions relevant to learning should not be forgotten. Thus emotional intelligence should be considered when computers and learning is concern. There is very little research on the effect of emotional intelligence on learning and on technology. As learning with technology relates to computers, thus this study focuses on the relationship between emotional intelligence and attitudes towards computer. Based on this study it was found that emotional intelligence of the polytechnic engineering students was average and their attitudes towards computers were positive. The relationship between emotional intelligence and attitude towards computer is positive but very weak. Significant difference were found when gender was compared however CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average) and ownership of computers did not affect this relationship.

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