Keow Ngang TANG

Work place: School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia



Research Interests:


Keow Ngang Tang is the Associate Professor in the School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia. They are also co-researchers to this project.

Author Articles
Comparing the Acceptance of Key Performance Indicators Management Systems on Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use in a Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

By Mei Yean ONG Balakrishnan Muniandy Saw Lan ONG Keow Ngang TANG Kia Kien PHUA

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Oct. 2012

This article discusses the findings of a study that elucidated users’ acceptance of two management systems for key performance indicators (KPIs) in terms of their usefulness and ease of use scores at a higher education institution in Malaysia. The two management systems were Key Performance Indicators Monitoring System (KPI-MS) and Excel Spreadsheet System (ESS). ESS is a system developed using Microsoft Excel and has been in used since the year 2008 in the institution to calculate KPIs marks. The ESS system, however, has several shortcomings, and the KPI-MS system was developed with the intention to replace ESS. KPI-MS is an online KPI performance monitoring system which allows users to access the system wherever and whenever they want using a web browser. In addition, KPI-MS is designed as an intelligent system that is able to process raw data automatically to produce results that can be easily visualized in a graphical manner. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on the acceptance of both systems. A total of 78 participants who were involved in KPI data processing from all 42 schools and centres in the higher education institution in Malaysia participated in this study. The instrument of this study was adapted and modified from Davis’ Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). This instrument was content-validated by three experts in the related field and the reliability index computed with Cronbach alpha was 0.955. A descriptive analysis was conducted to compare the mean scores of both KPI-MS and ESS rated by the users. The results showed that the users rated KPI-MS as a very useful system in monitoring KPI performance of their schools or centres compared to ESS. Also, users rated the KPI-MS to be significantly easier (p≤0.01) and more enjoyable to use. In conclusion, it is recommended that KPI-MS should replace the ESS system in managing KPIs data.

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