Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning: How Emotional Intelligence Moderates Learning

Full Text (PDF, 507KB), PP.54-63

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Jeya Amantha Kumar 1,* Balakrishnan Muniandy 1 Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya 1

1. Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia

* Corresponding author.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2016.05.07

Received: 26 Dec. 2015 / Revised: 2 Jan. 2016 / Accepted: 26 Mar. 2016 / Published: 8 May 2016

Index Terms

Emotional Design, Engineering Education, Emotional Intelligence, Multimedia- Based Learning, Aesthetics


This study is designed as a preliminary study to explore the effects of emotional intelligence (EI) on achievement, perceived intrinsic motivation and perceived satisfaction when expose to an emotional designed Multimedia Learning Environment (MLE) that was designed to induce either positive, neutral or negative emotions. All three designs had similar content and narration but differed in visual element such as colour, font size, font style and images. Based on the findings, it was reported that students performed better in the design used to induce negative emotion (NegD design) followed by the positive (PosD) and Neutral (NeuD). There is no significant difference in levels of emotional intelligence towards these learning outcomes; however, students with Low EI performed better overall. EI only qualified perceived satisfaction when using a MLE designed to induce emotions and it was found that students with Low EI preferred the design that induces positive emotions. In addition, High EI students favored designs with emotionality (positive or negative) compared to neutral design.

Cite This Paper

Jeya Amantha Kumar, Balakrishnan Muniandy, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan Yahaya, "Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning: How Emotional Intelligence Moderates Learning Outcomes", International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science(IJMECS), Vol.8, No.5, pp.54-63, 2016. DOI:10.5815/ijmecs.2016.05.07


[1]E. Um, J. L. Plass, E. O. Hayward, and B. D. Homer, “Emotional design in multimedia learning.,” Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 485–498, 2011.
[2]C. N. Moridis and A. A. Economides, “Toward computer-aided affective learning systems: a literature review,” Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 313–337, Jan. 2008.
[3]C. Dong, “Positive emotions and learning: What makes a difference in multimedia design ?,” New York University, 2007.
[4]N. Tractinsky, “Visual aesthetics,” in The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, M. Soegaard and R. F. Dam, Eds. Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation, 2013.
[5]R. E. Mayer and G. Estrella, “Benefits of emotional design in multimedia instruction,” Learning and Instruction, vol. 33, pp. 12–18, Oct. 2014.
[6]L. Arockiam and J. C. Selvaraj, “A study on relationship between emotional quotient and recollection & retention in e-learning,” International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE), vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 3748–3755, 2011.
[7]D. Leutner, “Motivation and emotion as mediators in multimedia learning,” Learning and Instruction, vol. 29, pp. 174–175, Feb. 2014.
[8]A. H. A. Al-Faouri, “Investigating the impact of emotional intelligence on technology learning,” International Journal of Engineering & Technology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 58–78, 2011.
[9]I. Lee, “Emotion, emotional intelligence, and e-learning,” in ICoME2011(9th International Conference for Media in Education 2011), 2011.
[10]R. Pekrun, T. Götz, W. Titz, and R. P. Perry, “Positive emotions in education,” in Beyond Coping: Meeting Goals, Visions, and Challenges, E. Frydenberg, Ed. Oxford University Press New York, 2002, pp. 149–173.
[11]R. Pekrun, “Emotions as drivers of learning and cognitive development,” New Perspectives on Affect and Learning Technologies. Explorations in the Learning Sciences, Instructional Systems and Performance Technologies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 23–39, 2011.
[12]E. R. Um, “The effect of positive emotions on cognitive : Processes in multimedia-based learning,” New York University, 2008.
[13]D. A. Norman, Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books, 2004.
[14]C. Hinton, K. Miyamoto, and B. Della-Chiesa, “Brain research, learning and emotions: implications for education research, policy and practice,” European Journal of Education, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 87–103, Jan. 2008.
[15]R. E. Mayer, “Applying the science of learning to medical education.,” Medical education, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 543–9, Jun. 2010.
[16]R. E. Mayer, Multimedia Learning, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
[17]K. Knautz, “Emotion felt and depicted : consequences for multimedia retrieval,” in Indexing and Retrieval of Non-Text Information, D. R. Neal, Ed. Berlin, Boston, MA: De Gruyter Saur, 2012, pp. 343–375.
[18]H. Van Der Meij, “Designing for user cognition and affect in software instructions,” Learning and Instruction, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 18–29, Feb. 2008.
[19]M. Martinez, “Beyond classroom solutions : New design perspectives for online learning,” Educational Technology & Society, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1–6, 2002.
[20]E. R. Um, H. S. Song, and J. L. Plass, “The effect of positive emotions on multimedia learning,” in Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2007, 2007, no. 1981, pp. 4176–4185.
[21]C. Dong, “Interface design, positive emotions and multimedia learning,” in Handbook of Research on Human Performance and Instructional Technology, H. Song and T. T. Kidd, Eds. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2010, pp. 182–194.
[22]J. B. Nezlek, K. Vansteelandt, I. Van Mechelen, and P. Kuppens, “Appraisal-emotion relationships in daily life.,” Emotion, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 145–50, Feb. 2008.
[23]S. P. Anderson, Seductive Interaction Design : Creating Playful, Fun, and Effective User Experiences, vol. 67. Berkeley, CA: New Riders, 2011.
[24]P. Hekkert, “Design aesthetics : principles of pleasure in design,” Psychology Science, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 157–172, 2006.
[25]A. G. Ho and K. W. M. Siu, “Emotionalise design, emotional design, emotion design : a new perspective to understand their relationships,” in International Association of Societies of Design Research, 2009, pp. 2717–2726.
[26]C. Miller, G. Veletsianos, and S. Hooper, “Demystifying aesthetics: An exploration of emotional design,” in Proceedings of the Ninth IASTED International Conference Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, 2006, pp. 15–20.
[27]R. Ghali and C. Frasson, “Emotional strategies for vocabulary learning,” in 2010 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Techologies, 2010.
[28]R. Khairudin, M. V. Givi, W. S. Wan Shahrazad, R. Nasir, and F. W. Halim, “Effects of emotional contents on explicit memory process,” Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (JSSH)., vol. 19, pp. 17–26, 2011.
[29]S. Naidu, E-learning: A Guidebook of Principles, Procedures and Practices. New Delhi: Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA), 2006, pp. 1–88.
[30]R. G. Saadé and D. Kira, “The emotional in e-learning,” Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 57–73, 2009.
[31]C. Behnke and J. P. Greenan, “The relationship between emotional intelligence and attitudes toward computer-based instruction of postsecondary hospitality students,” Journal of Career and Technical Education, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 62–84, 2011.
[32]A. G. Barto and O. Simsek, “Intrinsic motivation for reinforcement learning systems,” In Thirteenth Yale Workshop on Adaptive and Learning Systems, pp. 113–118, 2005.
[33]M. Chang and J. D. Lehman, “Interactive multimedia program : An experimental study on the effects of the relevance component,” CALICO Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 81–98, 2002.
[34]J. S. Jung and K. Y. Lim, “Effect analysis of factors related to the learner participation, achievement, and satisfaction in the web-based online discussion.,” Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 107–135, 2009.
[35]S. Liaw, “Investigating students’ perceived satisfaction, behavioral intention, and effectiveness of e-learning: A case study of the blackboard system,” Computers & Education, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 864–873, Sep. 2008.
[36]I. Lee, H. Park, E. Ryu, N. Oh, and S. Jan, “Analysis on relationship among learning affection, emotional intelligence, learning satisfaction, and learning flow of university student,” in ICoME2012 (10th International Conference for Media in Education 2012), 2012, p. p.90.
[37]P. Salovey and J. D. Mayer, “Emotional intelligence,” in Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, vol. 9, Bantam, 1990, pp. 185–211.
[38]C. Lawson, “The connections between emotions and learning,” Centre of Development and Learning, 2002. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdl.org/resource-library/articles/connect_emotions.php. [Accessed: 01-Apr-2012].
[39]H. Aminuddin, S. Tajularipin, and I. Rohaizan, “Philosophy underlying emotional intelligence in relation to level of curiosity and academic achievement of rural area students.,” Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 95–103, 2009.
[40]R. Berenson, G. Boyles, and A. Weaver, “Emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in online learning,” The International Review of Research in Open and Distance learning, vol. 9, no. 2, 2008.
[41]B. A. Frey and J. M. Sutton, “A model for developing multimedia learning projects,” MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 491–507, 2010.
[42]H. Zettl, Sight, Sound, Motion: Applied Media Aesthetics. BELMONT: Wadsworth Pub Co, 2010.
[43]A. D. Shaikh, B. S. Chaparro, and D. Fox, “Perception of fonts: Perceived personality traits and uses,” Usability News, 2006. [Online]. Available: http://usabilitynews.org/perception-of-fonts-perceived-personality-traits-and-uses/. [Accessed: 03-Jun-2013].
[44]A. D. Shaikh, “Psychology of onscreen type: Investigations regarding typeface personality, appropriateness, and impact on document perception,” Wichita State University, 2007.
[45]D. Tsonos and G. Kouroupetroglou, “A methodology for the extraction of reader ’ s emotional state triggered from text typography,” www.intechopen.com, 2007. [Online]. Available: www.intechopen.com/download/pdf/5301. [Accessed: 17-Feb-2012].
[46]W. Wang and Y. Yu, “Image emotional semantic query based on color semantic description,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2005, no. August, pp. 4571–4576.
[47]I. Ipek, “The effect of CBI lesson sequence type and field dependence on learning from computer-based cooperative instruction in web,” The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology –, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 221–234, 2010.
[48]M. A. Manal, “Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation : A case of IIUM,” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 196–206, 2011.
[49]Y. Wang, “Assessment of learner satisfaction with asynchronous electronic learning systems,” Information & Management, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 75–86, Oct. 2003.
[50]P. Ramakrisnan, J. Azizah, and M. Y. Noor Faezah, “Towards an understanding of user satisfaction measurement in online discussion site (ODS) design using rasch analysis,” International Journal of Education and Research, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 1–12, 2013.
[51]K. V. Petrides and A. Furnham, “The role of trait emotional intelligence in a gender-specific model of organizational variables.,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology,, vol. 35, pp. 552–569, 2006.
[52]T. S. Lim, “Gender differences in emotional intelligence: are you as smart as you think emotionally?,” Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 2011.
[53]A. R. Roslina, Fifi Afiyah, and A. R. Wan Rafaei, “A cross cultural study of achievement motivation and its relationship with emotional intelligent between Indonesian and Malay female students of IIUM,” in The 6th International Postgraduate Research Colloqium, 2009, no. 1990, pp. 83–97.
[54]J. A. Kumar and B. Muniandy, “The influence of demographic profiles on emotional intelligence : A study on polytechnic lecturers in Malaysia,” International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2012.
[55]S. Chaffar and C. Frasson, “The emotional conditions of learning,” in The 18th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference, 2005, pp. 201–206.
[56]S. Lewis, M. Dontcheva, and E. Gerber, “Affective computational priming and creativity,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ’11, 2011.
[57]P. Kirkham, D. Farkas, and M. Lidstrom, “Learning styles data and designing multimedia for engineers,” 2006 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, no. 1, pp. 57–67, Oct. 2006.
[58]D. Cigić and V. Bugarski, “Personality traits and colour preferences,” Current Topics in Neurology, Psychiatry and Related Disciplines; Journal of Association of Serbian Neurologists, vol. 18, no. 4, 2010.
[59]A. Youssef and H. Youssef, “Social networking on Web 2.0: From emotional intelligence to cyber emotional intelligence,” Management Information Systems, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 0–7, 2011.
[60]M. Zeidner, G. Matthews, and R. D. Roberts, What We Know about Emotional Intelligence : How it Affects Learning, Work, Relationship and our Mental Health. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2009.