International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications (IJISA)

ISSN: 2074-904X (Print)

ISSN: 2074-9058 (Online)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa

Website: https://www.mecs-press.org/ijisa

Published By: MECS Press

Frequency: 6 issues per year

Number(s) Available: 129

ICV: 2014 7.09

SJR: 2019 0.241

(IJISA) in Google Scholar Citations / h5-index

IJISA is committed to bridge the theory and practice of intelligent systems. From innovative ideas to specific algorithms and full system implementations, IJISA publishes original, peer-reviewed, and high quality articles in the areas of intelligent systems. IJISA is a well-indexed scholarly journal and is indispensable reading and references for people working at the cutting edge of intelligent systems and applications.

 

IJISA has been abstracted or indexed by several world class databases:  Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic Search, CrossRef, Baidu Wenku, IndexCopernicus, IET Inspec, EBSCO, JournalSeek, ULRICH's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat, Scirus, Academic Journals Database, Stanford University Libraries, Cornell University Library, UniSA Library, CNKI Scholar, ProQuest, J-Gate, ZDB, BASE, OhioLINK, iThenticate, Open Access Articles, Open Science Directory, National Science Library of Chinese Academy of Sciences, The HKU Scholars Hub, etc..

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IJISA Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb. 2024

REGULAR PAPERS

Exploring Feature Selection and Machine Learning Algorithms for Predicting Diabetes Disease

By Eman I. Abd El-Latif Islam A. Moneim

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2024.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

One of the most common diseases in the world is the chronic diabetes. Diabetes has a direct impact on the lives of millions of people worldwide. Diabetes can be controlled and improved with early diagnosis, but the majority of patients continue to live with it. There is a dispirit need to a system to anticipate and select the people who are most likely to be diabetes in the future. Diagnosing the future diseased person without taking any blood or glucose screening tests, is the main goal of this study. This paper proposed a deep-learning model for diabetes disease prediction. The proposed model consists of three main phases, data pre-processing, feature selection and finally different classifiers. Initially, during the data pre-processing stage, missing values are handled, and data normalization is applied to the data. Then, three techniques are used to select the most important features which are mutual information, chi-squared and Pearson correlation. After that, multiple machine learning classifiers are used. Four experiments are then conducted to test our models. Additionally, the effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated against that of other well-known machine learning techniques. The accuracy, AUC, sensitivity, and F-measure of the linear regression classifier are higher than those of the other methods, according to experimental data, which show that it performs better. The suggested model worked better than traditional methods and had a high accuracy rate for predicting diabetic disease.

[...] Read more.
Detection of Diabetes using Combined ML Algorithm

By Shifat Jahan Setu Fahima Tabassum Sarwar Jahan Md. Imdadul Islam

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2024.01.02, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

Recently data clustering algorithm under machine learning are used in ‘real-life data’ to segregate them based on the outcome of a phenomenon. In this paper, diabetes is detected from pathological data of 768 patients using four clustering algorithms: Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), K-means clustering, Fuzzy Inference system (FIS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Our main objective is to make binary classification on the data table in a sense that presence or absence of diabetes of a patient. We combined the four machine learning algorithms based on entropy-based probability to enhance accuracy of detection. Before applying combining scheme, we reduce the size of variables applying multiple linear regression (MLR) on the table then logistic regression is again applied on the resultant data to keep the outlier within a narrow range. Finally, entropy based combining scheme with some modification is applied on the four ML algorithms and we got the accuracy of detection about 94% from the combining technique.

[...] Read more.
AI-powered Predictive Model for Stroke and Diabetes Diagnostic

By Ngoc-Bich Le Thi-Thu-Hien Pham Sy-Hoang Nguyen Nhat-Minh Nguyen Tan-Nhu Nguyen

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2024.01.03, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

Research efforts in the prediction of stroke and diabetes prioritize early detection in order to enhance patient outcomes. To achieve this, a variety of methodologies are integrated. Existing studies, on the other hand, are marred by imbalanced datasets, lack of diversity in their datasets, potential bias, and inadequate model comparisons; these flaws underscore the necessity for more comprehensive and inclusive research methodologies. This paper provides a thorough assessment of machine learning algorithms in the context of early detection and diagnosis of stroke and diabetes. The research employed widely used algorithms, including Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and XGBoost Classifier, to examine medical data and derive significant findings. The XGBoost Classifier demonstrated superior performance, with an outstanding accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score of 87.5%. The comparative examination of the algorithms indicated that the Decision Tree, Random Forest, and XGBoost classifiers consistently exhibited strong performance across all measures. The models demonstrated impressive discrimination capabilities, with the XGBoost Classifier and Random Forest reaching accuracy rates of roughly 87.5% and 86.5% respectively. The Decision Tree Classifier exhibited notable performance, with an accuracy rate of 83%. The overall accuracy of the models was evident in the F1-score, a metric that incorporates recall and precision, where the XGBoost model exhibited a marginal improvement of 2% over the Random Forest and Decision Tree models, and 4.25 percent over the last two. The aforementioned results underscore the effectiveness of the XGBoost Classifier, which will be employed as a predictive model in this study, alongside the Random Forest and Decision Tree models, for the accurate identification of stroke and diabetes. Furthermore, combining datasets improves model performance by utilizing relative features. This integrated dataset improves the model's efficiency and creates a resilient and comprehensive prediction model, improving healthcare outcomes. The findings of this research make a valuable contribution to the advancement of AI-driven diagnostic systems, hence enhancing the quality of healthcare decision-making.

[...] Read more.
Development of a Facenet Enhanced Secured Smart Office System

By Odeyemi C. S. Olaniyan O. M.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2024.01.04, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

A secured smart office system is the one that is capable of recognizing and granting access to authorized persons only and manage the office appliances autonomously. The goals are access control, security and automation. Over the years, several studies have been carried out to meet these needs using RFID cards, access codes and biometrics resulting in weak security with long computational period. Switching of electrical appliances and smoke detection in case of fire outbreak were used but real time electrical appliances management that could prevent fire outbreak is yet to be achieved. This research focused its attention on the design and implementation of a smart office system that meet these needs. The system was developed using a raspberry pi 4 board. Ultrasonic sensor, camera, servo motor, relay, current and voltage sensors were interfaced with the raspberry pi for image capturing, opening the door, switching and power monitoring respectively. The system captures the image of an approaching person and process it for recognition using FaceNet; an open source model for face recognition. Information was transmitted via SIM800L GSM module as SMS to the administrator. The system shuts down the office electrical network once the supply voltage exceeds 220v ac or less than 161v ac, thus preventing any chance of fire outbreak due to irregular power supply. The accuracy of image recognition model was 93.13%. This research has shown a simple way of implementing an autonomous smart office system that is capable of providing adequate security, efficiency and convenience in offices.

[...] Read more.
Enhancing Early Alzheimer's Disease Detection: Leveraging Pre-trained Networks and Transfer Learning

By Naveen. N. Nagaraj. G. Cholli

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2024.01.05, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions worldwide. Early and accurate AD detection is crucial for timely intervention and improving patient outcomes. Lately, there have been notable advancements in using deep learning approaches to classify neuroimaging data associated with Alzheimer's disease. These methods have shown substantial progress in achieving accurate classification results. Nevertheless, the concept of end-to-end learning, which has the potential to harness the benefits of deep learning fully, has yet to garner extensive focus in the realm of neuroimaging. This is attributed mainly to the persistent challenge in neuroimaging, namely the limited data availability. This study employs neuroimages and Transfer Learning (TL) to identify early signs of AD and different phases of cognitive impairment. By employing transfer learning, the study uses Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging (ADNI) database to classify images into various categories, such as Cognitively Normal (CN), Early Mild Cognitive Impairment (EMCI), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Late Mild Cognitive Impairment (LMCI), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The classification task involves training and testing three pre-trained networks: VGG-19, ResNet-50, and Inception V3. The study evaluates the performance of these networks using the confusion matrix and its associated metrics. Among the three models, ResNet-50 achieves the highest recall rate of 99.25%, making it more efficient in detecting the early stages of AD development. The study further examines the performance of the pre-trained networks on a class-by-class basis using the parameters derived from the confusion matrix. This comprehensive analysis provides insights into how each model performs for different classes within the AD classification framework. Overall, the research underscores the potential of deep learning and transfer learning in advancing early AD detection and emphasizes the significance of utilizing pre-trained models for this purpose.

[...] Read more.
Analysis of Cyberbullying Incidence among Filipina Victims: A Pattern Recognition using Association Rule Extraction

By Frederick F. Patacsil

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2019.11.05, Pub. Date: 8 Nov. 2019

Cyberbullying is an intentional action of harassment along the complex domain of social media utilizing information technology online. This research experimented unsupervised associative approach on text mining technique to automatically find cyberbullying words, patterns and extract association rules from a collection of tweets based on the domain / frequent words. Furthermore, this research identifies the relationship between cyberbullying keywords with other cyberbullying words, thus generating knowledge discovery of different cyberbullying word patterns from unstructured tweets. The study revealed that the type of dominant frequent cyberbullying words are intelligence, personality, and insulting words that describe the behavior, appearance of the female victims and sex related words that humiliate female victims. The results of the study suggest that we can utilize unsupervised associative approached in text mining to extract important information from unstructured text. Further, applying association rules can be helpful in recognizing the relationship and meaning between keywords with other words, therefore generating knowledge discovery of different datasets from unstructured text.

[...] Read more.
Data Mining of Students’ Performance: Turkish Students as a Case Study

By Oyebade Kayode Oyedotun Sam Nii Tackie Ebenezer Obaloluwa Olaniyi Khashman Adnan

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2015.09.03, Pub. Date: 8 Aug. 2015

Artificial neural networks have been used in different fields of artificial intelligence, and more specifically in machine learning. Although, other machine learning options are feasible in most situations, but the ease with which neural networks lend themselves to different problems which include pattern recognition, image compression, classification, computer vision, regression etc. has earned it a remarkable place in the machine learning field. This research exploits neural networks as a data mining tool in predicting the number of times a student repeats a course, considering some attributes relating to the course itself, the teacher, and the particular student. Neural networks were used in this work to map the relationship between some attributes related to students’ course assessment and the number of times a student will possibly repeat a course before he passes. It is the hope that the possibility to predict students’ performance from such complex relationships can help facilitate the fine-tuning of academic systems and policies implemented in learning environments. To validate the power of neural networks in data mining, Turkish students’ performance database has been used; feedforward and radial basis function networks were trained for this task. The performances obtained from these networks were evaluated in consideration of achieved recognition rates and training time.

[...] Read more.
Blockchain with Internet of Things: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Directions

By Hany F. Atlam Ahmed Alenezi Madini O. Alassafi Gary B. Wills

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2018.06.05, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2018

The Internet of Things (IoT) has extended the internet connectivity to reach not just computers and humans, but most of our environment things. The IoT has the potential to connect billions of objects simultaneously which has the impact of improving information sharing needs that result in improving our life. Although the IoT benefits are unlimited, there are many challenges facing adopting the IoT in the real world due to its centralized server/client model. For instance, scalability and security issues that arise due to the excessive numbers of IoT objects in the network. The server/client model requires all devices to be connected and authenticated through the server, which creates a single point of failure. Therefore, moving the IoT system into the decentralized path may be the right decision. One of the popular decentralization systems is blockchain. The Blockchain is a powerful technology that decentralizes computation and management processes which can solve many of IoT issues, especially security. This paper provides an overview of the integration of the blockchain with the IoT with highlighting the integration benefits and challenges. The future research directions of blockchain with IoT are also discussed. We conclude that the combination of blockchain and IoT can provide a powerful approach which can significantly pave the way for new business models and distributed applications.

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Machine Learning for Weather Forecasting: XGBoost vs SVM vs Random Forest in Predicting Temperature for Visakhapatnam

By Deep Karan Singh Nisha Rawat

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.05.05, Pub. Date: 8 Oct. 2023

Climate change, a significant and lasting alteration in global weather patterns, is profoundly impacting the stability and predictability of global temperature regimes. As the world continues to grapple with the far-reaching effects of climate change, accurate and timely temperature predictions have become pivotal to various sectors, including agriculture, energy, public health and many more. Crucially, precise temperature forecasting assists in developing effective climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. With the advent of machine learning techniques, we now have powerful tools that can learn from vast climatic datasets and provide improved predictive performance. This study delves into the comparison of three such advanced machine learning models—XGBoost, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forest—in predicting daily maximum and minimum temperatures using a 45-year dataset of Visakhapatnam airport. Each model was rigorously trained and evaluated based on key performance metrics including training loss, Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Squared Error (MSE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R2 score, Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Explained Variance Score. Although there was no clear dominance of a single model across all metrics, SVM and Random Forest showed slightly superior performance on several measures. These findings not only highlight the potential of machine learning techniques in enhancing the accuracy of temperature forecasting but also stress the importance of selecting an appropriate model and performance metrics aligned with the requirements of the task at hand. This research accomplishes a thorough comparative analysis, conducts a rigorous evaluation of the models, highlights the significance of model selection.

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Non-Functional Requirements Classification Using Machine Learning Algorithms

By Abdur Rahman Abu Nayem Saeed Siddik

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.03.05, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2023

Non-functional requirements define the quality attribute of a software application, which are necessary to identify in the early stage of software development life cycle. Researchers proposed automatic software Non-functional requirement classification using several Machine Learning (ML) algorithms with a combination of various vectorization techniques. However, using the best combination in Non-functional requirement classification still needs to be clarified. In this paper, we examined whether different combinations of feature extraction techniques and ML algorithms varied in the non-functional requirements classification performance. We also reported the best approach for classifying Non-functional requirements. We conducted the comparative analysis on a publicly available PROMISE_exp dataset containing labelled functional and Non-functional requirements. Initially, we normalized the textual requirements from the dataset; then extracted features through Bag of Words (BoW), Term Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF), Hashing and Chi-Squared vectorization methods. Finally, we executed the 15 most popular ML algorithms to classify the requirements. The novelty of this work is the empirical analysis to find out the best combination of ML classifier with appropriate vectorization technique, which helps developers to detect Non-functional requirements early and take precise steps. We found that the linear support vector classifier and TF-IDF combination outperform any combinations with an F1-score of 81.5%.

[...] Read more.
Predicting Stock Market Behavior using Data Mining Technique and News Sentiment Analysis

By Ayman E. Khedr S.E.Salama Nagwa Yaseen

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2017.07.03, Pub. Date: 8 Jul. 2017

Stock market prediction has become an attractive investigation topic due to its important role in economy and beneficial offers. There is an imminent need to uncover the stock market future behavior in order to avoid investment risks. The large amount of data generated by the stock market is considered a treasure of knowledge for investors. This study aims at constructing an effective model to predict stock market future trends with small error ratio and improve the accuracy of prediction. This prediction model is based on sentiment analysis of financial news and historical stock market prices. This model provides better accuracy results than all previous studies by considering multiple types of news related to market and company with historical stock prices. A dataset containing stock prices from three companies is used. The first step is to analyze news sentiment to get the text polarity using naïve Bayes algorithm. This step achieved prediction accuracy results ranging from 72.73% to 86.21%. The second step combines news polarities and historical stock prices together to predict future stock prices. This improved the prediction accuracy up to 89.80%.

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Machine Learning in Cyberbullying Detection from Social-Media Image or Screenshot with Optical Character Recognition

By Tofayet Sultan Nusrat Jahan Ritu Basak Mohammed Shaheen Alam Jony Rashidul Hasan Nabil

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.02.01, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Along with the growth of the Internet, social media usage has drastically expanded. As people share their opinions and ideas more frequently on the Internet and through various social media platforms, there has been a notable rise in the number of consumer phrases that contain sentiment data. According to reports, cyberbullying frequently leads to severe emotional and physical suffering, especially in women and young children. In certain instances, it has even been reported that sufferers attempt suicide. The bully may occasionally attempt to destroy any proof they believe to be on their side. Even if the victim gets the evidence, it will still be a long time before they get justice at that point. This work used OCR, NLP, and machine learning to detect cyberbullying in photos in order to design and execute a practical method to recognize cyberbullying from images. Eight classifier techniques are used to compare the accuracy of these algorithms against the BoW Model and the TF-IDF, two key features. These classifiers are used to understand and recognize bullying behaviors. Based on testing the suggested method on the cyberbullying dataset, it was shown that linear SVC after OCR and logistic regression perform better and achieve the best accuracy of 96 percent. This study aid in providing a good outline that shapes the methods for detecting online bullying from a screenshot with design and implementation details.

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Sentiment Analysis: A Perspective on its Past, Present and Future

By Akshi Kumar Teeja Mary Sebastian

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2012.10.01, Pub. Date: 8 Sep. 2012

The proliferation of Web-enabled devices, including desktops, laptops, tablets, and mobile phones, enables people to communicate, participate and collaborate with each other in various Web communities, viz., forums, social networks, blogs. Simultaneously, the enormous amount of heterogeneous data that is generated by the users of these communities, offers an unprecedented opportunity to create and employ theories & technologies that search and retrieve relevant data from the huge quantity of information available and mine for opinions thereafter. Consequently, Sentiment Analysis which automatically extracts and analyses the subjectivities and sentiments (or polarities) in written text has emerged as an active area of research. This paper previews and reviews the substantial research on the subject of sentiment analysis, expounding its basic terminology, tasks and granularity levels. It further gives an overview of the state- of – art depicting some previous attempts to study sentiment analysis. Its practical and potential applications are also discussed, followed by the issues and challenges that will keep the field dynamic and lively for years to come.

[...] Read more.
A Conic Radon-based Convolutional Neural Network for Image Recognition

By Dhekra El Hamdi Ines Elouedi Mai K Nguyen Atef Hamouda

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2023

This article presents a new approach for image recognition that proposes to combine Conical Radon Transform (CRT) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN).
In order to evaluate the performance of this approach for pattern recognition task, we have built a Radon descriptor enhancing features extracted by linear, circular and parabolic RT. The main idea consists in exploring the use of Conic Radon transform to define a robust image descriptor. Specifically, the Radon transformation is initially applied on the image. Afterwards, the extracted features are combined with image and then entered as an input into the convolutional layers. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our descriptor which joins together extraction of features of different shapes and the convolutional neural networks achieves satisfactory results for describing images on public available datasets such as, ETH80, and FLAVIA. Our proposed approach recognizes objects with an accuracy of 96 % when tested on the ETH80 dataset. It also has yielded competitive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods when tested on the FLAVIA dataset with accuracy of 98 %. We also carried out experiments on traffic signs dataset GTSBR. We investigate in this work the use of simple CNN models to focus on the utility of our descriptor. We propose a new lightweight network for traffic signs that does not require a large number of parameters. The objective of this work is to achieve optimal results in terms of accuracy and to reduce network parameters. This approach could be adopted in real time applications. It classified traffic signs with high accuracy of 99%.

[...] Read more.
Detection and Classification of Alzheimer’s Disease by Employing CNN

By Smt. Swaroopa Shastri Ambresh Bhadrashetty Supriya Kulkarni

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.02.02, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Alzheimer’s illness is an ailment of mind which results in mental confusion, forgetfulness and many other mental problems. It effects physical health of a person too. When treating a patient with Alzheimer's disease, a proper diagnosis is crucial, especially into earlier phases of condition as when patients are informed of the risk of the disease, they can take preventative steps before irreparable brain damage occurs. The majority of machine detection techniques are constrained by congenital (present at birth) data, however numerous recent studies have used computers for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. The first stages of Alzheimer's disease can be diagnosed, but illness itself cannot be predicted since prediction is only helpful before it really manifests. Alzheimer’s has high risk symptoms that effects both physical and mental health of a patient. Risks include confusion, concentration difficulties and much more, so with such symptoms it becomes important to detect this disease at its early stages. Significance of detecting this disease is the patient gets a better chance of treatment and medication. Hence our research helps to detect the disease at its early stages. Particularly when used with brain MRI scans, deep learning has emerged as a popular tool for the early identification of AD. Here we are using a 12- layer CNN that has the layers four convolutional, two pooling, two flatten, one dense and three activation functions. As CNN is well-known for pattern detection and image processing, here, accuracy of our model is 97.80%.

[...] Read more.
Data Mining of Students’ Performance: Turkish Students as a Case Study

By Oyebade Kayode Oyedotun Sam Nii Tackie Ebenezer Obaloluwa Olaniyi Khashman Adnan

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2015.09.03, Pub. Date: 8 Aug. 2015

Artificial neural networks have been used in different fields of artificial intelligence, and more specifically in machine learning. Although, other machine learning options are feasible in most situations, but the ease with which neural networks lend themselves to different problems which include pattern recognition, image compression, classification, computer vision, regression etc. has earned it a remarkable place in the machine learning field. This research exploits neural networks as a data mining tool in predicting the number of times a student repeats a course, considering some attributes relating to the course itself, the teacher, and the particular student. Neural networks were used in this work to map the relationship between some attributes related to students’ course assessment and the number of times a student will possibly repeat a course before he passes. It is the hope that the possibility to predict students’ performance from such complex relationships can help facilitate the fine-tuning of academic systems and policies implemented in learning environments. To validate the power of neural networks in data mining, Turkish students’ performance database has been used; feedforward and radial basis function networks were trained for this task. The performances obtained from these networks were evaluated in consideration of achieved recognition rates and training time.

[...] Read more.
Non-Functional Requirements Classification Using Machine Learning Algorithms

By Abdur Rahman Abu Nayem Saeed Siddik

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.03.05, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2023

Non-functional requirements define the quality attribute of a software application, which are necessary to identify in the early stage of software development life cycle. Researchers proposed automatic software Non-functional requirement classification using several Machine Learning (ML) algorithms with a combination of various vectorization techniques. However, using the best combination in Non-functional requirement classification still needs to be clarified. In this paper, we examined whether different combinations of feature extraction techniques and ML algorithms varied in the non-functional requirements classification performance. We also reported the best approach for classifying Non-functional requirements. We conducted the comparative analysis on a publicly available PROMISE_exp dataset containing labelled functional and Non-functional requirements. Initially, we normalized the textual requirements from the dataset; then extracted features through Bag of Words (BoW), Term Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF), Hashing and Chi-Squared vectorization methods. Finally, we executed the 15 most popular ML algorithms to classify the requirements. The novelty of this work is the empirical analysis to find out the best combination of ML classifier with appropriate vectorization technique, which helps developers to detect Non-functional requirements early and take precise steps. We found that the linear support vector classifier and TF-IDF combination outperform any combinations with an F1-score of 81.5%.

[...] Read more.
A Conic Radon-based Convolutional Neural Network for Image Recognition

By Dhekra El Hamdi Ines Elouedi Mai K Nguyen Atef Hamouda

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2023

This article presents a new approach for image recognition that proposes to combine Conical Radon Transform (CRT) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN).
In order to evaluate the performance of this approach for pattern recognition task, we have built a Radon descriptor enhancing features extracted by linear, circular and parabolic RT. The main idea consists in exploring the use of Conic Radon transform to define a robust image descriptor. Specifically, the Radon transformation is initially applied on the image. Afterwards, the extracted features are combined with image and then entered as an input into the convolutional layers. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our descriptor which joins together extraction of features of different shapes and the convolutional neural networks achieves satisfactory results for describing images on public available datasets such as, ETH80, and FLAVIA. Our proposed approach recognizes objects with an accuracy of 96 % when tested on the ETH80 dataset. It also has yielded competitive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods when tested on the FLAVIA dataset with accuracy of 98 %. We also carried out experiments on traffic signs dataset GTSBR. We investigate in this work the use of simple CNN models to focus on the utility of our descriptor. We propose a new lightweight network for traffic signs that does not require a large number of parameters. The objective of this work is to achieve optimal results in terms of accuracy and to reduce network parameters. This approach could be adopted in real time applications. It classified traffic signs with high accuracy of 99%.

[...] Read more.
Graph Coloring in University Timetable Scheduling

By Swapnil Biswas Syeda Ajbina Nusrat Nusrat Sharmin Mahbubur Rahman

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.03.02, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2023

Addressing scheduling problems with the best graph coloring algorithm has always been very challenging. However, the university timetable scheduling problem can be formulated as a graph coloring problem where courses are represented as vertices and the presence of common students or teachers of the corresponding courses can be represented as edges. After that, the problem stands to color the vertices with lowest possible colors. In order to accomplish this task, the paper presents a comparative study of the use of graph coloring in university timetable scheduling, where five graph coloring algorithms were used: First Fit, Welsh Powell, Largest Degree Ordering, Incidence Degree Ordering, and DSATUR. We have taken the Military Institute of Science and Technology, Bangladesh as a test case. The results show that the Welsh-Powell algorithm and the DSATUR algorithm are the most effective in generating optimal schedules. The study also provides insights into the limitations and advantages of using graph coloring in timetable scheduling and suggests directions for future research with the use of these algorithms.

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Static Timing Analysis of Different SRAM Controllers

By Jabin Sultana S. M. Shamsul Alam

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.03.03, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2023

Timing-critical path analysis is one of the most significant terms for the VLSI designer. For the formal verification of any kinds of digital chip, static timing analysis (STA) plays a vital role to check the potentiality and viability of the design procedures. This indicates the timing status between setup and holding times required with respect to the active edge of the clock. STA can also be used to identify time sensitive paths, simulate path delays, and assess Register transfer level (RTL) dependability. Four types of Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) controllers in this paper are used to handle with the complexities of digital circuit timing analysis at the logic level. Different STA parameters such as slack, clock skew, data latency, and multiple clock frequencies are investigated here in their node-to-node path analysis for diverse SRAM controllers. Using phase lock loop (ALTPLL), single clock and dual clock are used to get the response of these controllers. For four SRAM controllers, the timing analysis shows that no data violation exists for single and dual clock with 50 MHz and 100 MHz frequencies. Result also shows that the slack for 100MHz is greater than that of 50MHz. Moreover, the clock skew value in our proposed design is lower than in the other three controllers because number of paths, number of states are reduced, and the slack value is higher than in 1st and 2nd controllers. In timing path analysis, slack time determines that the design is working at the desired frequency. Although 100MHz is faster than 50MHz, our proposed SRAM controller meets the timing requirements for 100MHz including the reduction of node to node data delay. Due to this reason, the proposed controller performs well compared to others in terms slack and clock skew.

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Indeterminacy Handling of Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System Using Neutrosophic Set Theory: A Case Study for the Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

By Rajan Prasad Praveen Kumar Shukla

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.03.01, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2023

Early diabetes diagnosis allows patients to begin treatment on time, reducing or eliminating the risk of serious consequences. In this paper, we propose the Neutrosophic-Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (N-ANFIS) for the classification of diabetes. It is an extension of the generic ANFIS model. Neutrosophic logic is capable of handling the uncertain and imprecise information of the traditional fuzzy set. The suggested method begins with the conversion of crisp values to neutrosophic sets using a trapezoidal and triangular neutrosophic membership function. These values are fed into an inferential system, which compares the most impacted value to a diagnosis. The result demonstrates that the suggested model has successfully dealt with vague information. For practical implementation, a single-value neutrosophic number has been used; it is a special case of the neutrosophic set. To highlight the promising potential of the suggested technique, an experimental investigation of the well-known Pima Indian diabetes dataset is presented. The results of our trials show that the proposed technique attained a high degree of accuracy and produced a generic model capable of effectively classifying previously unknown data. It can also surpass some of the most advanced classification algorithms based on machine learning and fuzzy systems.

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Classification of Images of Skin Lesion Using Deep Learning

By Momina Shaheen Usman Saif Shahid M. Awan Faizan Ahmad Aimen Anum

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.02.03, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Skin cancer is among common and rapidly increasing human malignancies, which can be diagnosed visually. The diagnosis begins with preliminary medical screening and by dermoscopic examination, histopathological examination, and proceeding to the biopsy. This screening and diagnosis can be automated using machine learning tools and techniques. Artificial neural networks are helping a lot in medical diagnosis applications. In this research, skin images are classified into 7 different classes of skin cancer using deep learning methodology, then analyzed the results w.r.t to their respective precision, recall, support, and accuracy to find its practical applicability. This model is efficient in comparison to the detection of skin cancer with human eyes. Human eyes detection can be 79% accurate at most. Thus, having a scientific method of diagnosis can help the doctors and practitioners to accurately identify the cancer and its type. The model provides 80% accuracy on average for all 7 types of skin diseases, thus being more reliable than human eye examination. It will help the doctors to diagnose the skin diseases more confidently. The model has only 2 misclassified predictions for Basal cell carcinoma and Vascular lesions. However, Actinic keratosis diagnosis is most accurately predicted.

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Towards an Intelligent Machine Learning-based Business Approach

By Mohamed Nazih Omri Wafa Mribah

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2022.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2022

With the constant increase of data induced by stakeholders throughout a product life cycle, companies tend to rely on project management tools for guidance. Business intelligence approaches that are project-oriented will help the team communicate better, plan their next steps, have an overview of the current project state and take concrete actions prior to the provided forecasts. The spread of agile working mindsets are making these tools even more useful. It sets a basic understanding of how the project should be running so that the implementation is easy to follow on and easy to use.
In this paper, we offer a model that makes project management accessible from different software development tools and different data sources. Our model provide project data analysis to improve aspects: (i) collaboration which includes team communication, team dashboard. It also optimizes document sharing, deadlines and status updates. (ii) planning: allows the tasks described by the software to be used and made visible. It will also involve tracking task time to display any barriers to work that some members might be facing without reporting them. (iii) forecasting to predict future results from behavioral data, which will allow concrete measures to be taken. And (iv) Documentation to involve reports that summarize all relevant project information, such as time spent on tasks and charts that study the status of the project. The experimental study carried out on the various data collections on our model and on the main models that we have studied in the literature, as well as the analysis of the results, which we obtained, clearly show the limits of these studied models and confirms the performance of our model as well as efficiency in terms of precision, recall and robustness.

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Football Match Prediction with Tree Based Model Classification

By Yoel F. Alfredo Sani M. Isa

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2019.07.03, Pub. Date: 8 Jul. 2019

This paper presents the football match prediction using a tree-based model algorithm (C5.0, Random Forest, and Extreme Gradient Boosting). Backward wrapper model was applied as a feature selection methodology to help select the best feature that will improve the accuracy of the model. This study used 10 seasons of football data match history (2007/2008 – 2016/2017) in the English Premier League with 15 initial features to predict the match results. With the tuning process, each model showed improvement in accuracy. Random Forest algorithm generated the best accuracy with 68,55% while the C5.0 algorithm had the lowest accuracy at 64,87% and Extreme Gradient Boosting algorithm produced accuracy of 67,89%. With the output produced in this study, the Decision Tree based algorithm is concluded as not good enough in predicting a football match history.

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Detection and Classification of Alzheimer’s Disease by Employing CNN

By Smt. Swaroopa Shastri Ambresh Bhadrashetty Supriya Kulkarni

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2023.02.02, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Alzheimer’s illness is an ailment of mind which results in mental confusion, forgetfulness and many other mental problems. It effects physical health of a person too. When treating a patient with Alzheimer's disease, a proper diagnosis is crucial, especially into earlier phases of condition as when patients are informed of the risk of the disease, they can take preventative steps before irreparable brain damage occurs. The majority of machine detection techniques are constrained by congenital (present at birth) data, however numerous recent studies have used computers for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. The first stages of Alzheimer's disease can be diagnosed, but illness itself cannot be predicted since prediction is only helpful before it really manifests. Alzheimer’s has high risk symptoms that effects both physical and mental health of a patient. Risks include confusion, concentration difficulties and much more, so with such symptoms it becomes important to detect this disease at its early stages. Significance of detecting this disease is the patient gets a better chance of treatment and medication. Hence our research helps to detect the disease at its early stages. Particularly when used with brain MRI scans, deep learning has emerged as a popular tool for the early identification of AD. Here we are using a 12- layer CNN that has the layers four convolutional, two pooling, two flatten, one dense and three activation functions. As CNN is well-known for pattern detection and image processing, here, accuracy of our model is 97.80%.

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