Mustafa Kamal Pasha

Work place: Department of Environment, Society and Design, Lincoln University - New Zealand



Research Interests: Program Analysis and Transformation, Data Structures and Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence


Mustafa Pasha is an independent consultant on computational modelling and simulation on medical and health related topics. He has a master’s in computational sciences and engineering from NUST, Pakistan and a PhD in Applied computing from Lincoln, New Zealand. He has a dedicated set of expertise in drug design and discovery, his past work includes work on cancer cell proliferation and human cell cycle modelling and simulation. Besides his research profile, he has number of achievements in health business, procurement, and novel solutions consultations. He holds the privilege to be nominated in Canterbury Business Champion, New Zealand. His research interests include, Pharmaceutical Formulations, Intelligent Modelling and Simulation, Artificial intelligence, Machine learning, Data Analysis, Industrial Business Consultancy and regulatory affairs.

Author Articles
Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Based Identification of Risk Factors and Incidence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Pakistan

By Mustafa Kamal Pasha

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Oct. 2021

The disease burden of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) varies across the globe and have a significant impact on the overall health of the communities. A number of complications and diseases stem from chronic GERD. In order to provide improved healthcare measures and to effectively monitor and control GERD, it is important to identify rate of incidence of the disease and the associated risk factors along with symptoms. Therefore, this study was conducted by retrieving the relevant data through machine learning. Principles of Artificial Neural Networks were applied to sort the data and the results were obtained in the form of a network by using VOSviewer software. These artificial intelligence and machine learning based results reveal that the Asian population is increasingly becoming prone to GERD and sporadic reports from Pakistan have surmounted to disclose that GERD is constantly present across different districts and cities of Pakistan. The major risk factors identified among the Pakistani population in different research articles include consumption of oily foods, the habit of having late dinners, sedentary lifestyles and a lack of understanding about disease diagnosis, and GERD management and treatment. Our results suggest that acid reflux and inflammation of esophageal cavity are some of the main symptoms of the disease. On the basis of the results obtained, it is speculated that this study will provide a ground to improve the symptomatic diagnosis of GERD by closely observing and analyzing the risk factors and the rate of incidence with symptoms. It would enable the healthcare facilities to effectively monitor the GERD cases so that the disease burden due to GERD and related illnesses could be reduced. Moreover, the identification of regional differences and a comparative data would help us in identifying the disease hotspots where more efforts would be needed to manage and control the disease. 

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Application of the Docking Protocol Optimization for Inhibitors of IGF-1R and IR and Understanding them through Artificial Intelligence and Bibliography

By Mustafa Kamal Pasha Khurram Munawar Asma Talib Qureshi

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Aug. 2021

The cancer cell prolonged and continues proliferation is a major cause of tumorigenesis. In general, Insulin like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and Insulin receptor (IR-A) protein are responsible for such cell proliferations. However, with respect to cancers, the specific over-expression of these receptors along with the elevated levels of their agonist, i.e. insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) have shown to be the integral part of cancer cell’s proliferation. The understanding of the dual targeting of (IR) and (IGF-1R) through Artificial Intelligence in tumorigenesis is now considered to be a possible aspect to achieve the desired results. In this research we signify that according to data based on artificial intelligence, the tyrosine kinase domain of these two receptors can accommodates number of small molecules inhibitors to block the ongoing signaling cascade for cell proliferation. It is indeed found to be of paramount importance to develop such candidates as clinical solutions to block the activity of tyrosine kinase domain of IR and IGF-1R. Therefore, this study aims to use artificial intelligence for understanding the key molecular interactions responsible for activation and inhibition of the proliferation signal via tyrosine kinase domain. Further, we optimized docking protocol on crystal structures of such system from protein databank. Our study revealed that H-bond donor and hydrophobic pocket play a key role in the initiation of the signal cascade for cell proliferation. The simulations ran produced an acceptable solution based on the statistical measures of Mathew’s correlation factor and delineated two H- bonds distances between 12-22. Our study also concluded that how a docking protocol can be optimized to accommodate the non-congeneric series small molecules. We successfully ran the simulation to conclude that LYS 1030, GLU 1077, MET 1079 and ASP 1083 amino acids positions play an important role in binding of small molecules to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. This research bridges the gap between in-silico and in-vitro experimentations and paves a way to reproduce the results experimentally.

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Data Driven Through Machine Learning on Electricity Production by Anode Respiring Bacteria Using the Microbial Fuel Cells

By Mustafa Kamal Pasha Khurram Munawar

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2021

Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is a bio-electrochemical device that generates electric current by using bacteria. MFCs are currently a topic of intense research and interest due to their ability to produce renewable energy along with added benefits such as wastewater treatment. Although the theoretical concepts and applicability of MFCs are great, their application, thus far has been limited due to the limits of power production. Current research aims to improve the efficiency as well as the upper limit of power production by MFCs. In parallel to current research, this study is designed with a similar aim to do a comprehensive data analysis on the topic of MFCs by using techniques of Artificial Intelligence. Therefore, we started this study by obtaining the relevant data through an extensive literature retrieval for developing Artificial Neural Network model. The data from the output layer was viewed by using VOSviewer software and was further subjected to analysis. The data collected through machine learning provided an insight about the optimal conditions of MFCs which would allow for maximum current production. It discusses two existing types of MFCs; namely mediator type and mediator free type of MFC. Anode respiring bacteria (ARB), also known as exoelectrogenes can be used as the mediator to transfer electrons by utilizing the substrate present at the anode. Our results suggest that different combinations of bacterium and biofilms can produce more electric current with improved stability. This study will provide an insight to improve the working capacity of MFCs. It is likely that MFCs will one day be used as a stand-alone power production method by optimizing the current production capacity. Moreover, these advancements will have a significant by utilizing MFCs for making chips and biosensors, and treating wastewater.

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The Cell Cycle Model: A Comprehensive Review and Extension Based on Machine Learning

By Mustafa Kamal Pasha Khurram Munawar Asma Talib Qureshi

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2021

The cell cycle is a conserved process comprising of an organized series of interdependent and cross regulatory events that lead to controlled cell growth and proliferation. Genomic and volume regulatory processes are of special interest as they decide the fate of cell cycle. Signaling cascades including MAPK, PI3K, Sonic Hedgehog, Wnt and NOTCH signaling pathways are few well known conventional players contributing in controlling the cell cycle progression through different phases by expressing certain proteins. Moreover, the unconventional volume regulatory players exert influence by regulating membrane potential that is determined by ions influx or efflux across the plasma membrane via ion channels, controlling water movement and ultimately contributing to volume increase in growth phases of the cell cycle. Both of these players are interlinked, therefore, in order to establish a better understanding of the interdependence of these players, principles of machine learning were applied on data obtained on cell cycle. The data was processed by using neural networks and it shows that a significant understanding of conventional regulators is available in the literature and it has been under the limelight as well. However, when it comes to unconventional volume regulatory players, a limited understanding is available. Moreover, the precise role of each component and its interdependence with other is not yet fully understood. Due to which, they are not clearly evaluated for their potential role as cell cycle control elements for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, this study aims to summarize the data on cell cycle that is obtained through machine learning and to discuss the advances in cell cycle modelling mechanisms and designs that are based on different mathematical algorithms. Thus, this review will provide a basis to clearly understand and interlink the discoveries on cell cycle so that a comprehensive cell cycle model could be built which, if manipulated can be used for therapeutic purposes by identifying the least explored regulatory control elements.

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