Shahbaz Ali

Work place: School of Computer Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China



Research Interests:


Shahbaz Ali earned the B.Eng. in Electrical (Telecoms) Engineering from Sukkur IBA University, Sukkur, Pakistan under the PM’s National ICT Scholarship in 2014. He is currently a Research Scholar and pursuing the M.S. in Computer Software and Theory from Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China under the Chinese Govt Scholarship. He has published a few research papers in the international journals. His research interests include Cryptology and Information Security.

Author Articles
The Impact of Industry 4.0 Implementation on Organizational Behavior and Corporate Culture: The Case of Pakistan’s Retail Industry

By Shahbaz Ali Yongping Xie

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2020

This paper measured the impact of the implementation of the five core Industry 4.0 technologies (artificial intelligence, big data analytics, cloud computing, cybersecurity, and Internet of Things (IoT)) on organizational behavior and corporate culture of businesses and organizations in Pakistan. Moreover, the influence of organizational behavior and corporate culture on organizational effectiveness was also analyzed in this paper. The retail industry of Pakistan was chosen as the subject of this study, and a quantitative approach, which included a questionnaire based on a five-point Likert scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree,” was employed to gather the responses from participants, including both superiors and subordinates possessing the technological know-how of Industry 4.0. The findings indicated that the implementation of Industry 4.0 in Pakistan’s retail sector helps positively transform organizational behavior and aids in building a great corporate culture. Moreover, it was found that both positive organizational behavior and great corporate culture help in improving the overall organizational effectiveness. This study took an unprecedented step to research Industry 4.0 from an organizational perspective. Furthermore, the carried-out study extended the theoretical body of knowledge by studying and examining the five crucial factors of Industry 4.0 that contribute to the service sector, particularly the retail industry, of the big emerging markets (BEM) economies, including Pakistan.

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A State-of-the-Art Survey of Coverless Text Information Hiding

By Shahbaz Ali

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Jul. 2018

Information plays a pre-eminent role in people's routine lives. It provides people with facts about abundant topics of interest. Information can be represented by a variety of communicative media such as text, video, audio, and image, out of which text is the most common medium for representing the information. In the digital era, the information can easily be imitated, exchanged and distributed from one place to another in an instant. Thus, it is incredibly essential to hide the confidential information so that it couldn’t be accessed by unauthorized means. The traditional information hiding techniques require a designated carrier to hide the secret information, which ultimately introduces some modifications in the carrier. As a result, it is quite hard for the existing traditional methods to escape from the steganalysis. In contrast to conventional information hiding techniques, the term ‘coverless information hiding’ has been coined by the researchers lately, which doesn’t require a designated carrier to conceal the secret information. Hence, the technique of coverless information hiding can efficiently resist the attacks of steganalysis. This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of coverless text information hiding by discussing the current scope of the aforementioned technique comprehensively. The existing coverless text information hiding methods are compared and contrasted by various vital aspects such as embedding capacity, algorithm efficiency, ability to resist steganalysis, and methods’ theoretical and real-world significance. Moreover, some future aspects of coverless text information hiding are highlighted at the end.

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