Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of 'Psychological, Financial and Career Effect' Among Bangladeshi Undergraduate Students in the COVID-19 Pandemic Situation

Full Text (PDF, 818KB), PP.15-29

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Fee Faysal Ahmed 1,* Tonmoy Adhikary 1 Tania Sultana 1 Sheikh Sadia Arny 1 Faria Tabassum Nishi 1 Partho Bosu 1 Samiran Mondal 1

1. Department of Mathematics, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore-7408, Bangladesh

* Corresponding author.


Received: 19 Dec. 2021 / Revised: 26 Jan. 2022 / Accepted: 13 Mar. 2022 / Published: 8 Oct. 2022

Index Terms

COVID-19, risk factor, logistics regression, depression, anxiety, mood disorder, financial problem, career effect.


Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic situation has deeply affected students' psychological, financial, and career problems. The objective of our study is to find out the prevalence and identify significant risk factors of psychological, financial and career effects among the students in the pandemic.

Methods: The cross-sectional survey was performed online via multiple social media sites such as Facebook, Email, WhatsApp, and the survey included 723 individuals. Chi-square analysis was performed to show the association between different selected factors and psychological, financial and career problems. Risk factors were obtained by logistics regression on the basis of p-value (p-value<0.05).

Findings: Our findings illustrate that 68.11% of students suffer from depression, 60.86% from anxiety, 61.98% from a mood disorder, and 63.23% from financial difficulties, such as being unable to afford the cost of education, working frustrated all the time, and losing interest in many things. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that student’s gender, feeling helpless, worried, lost interest, educational expenses, and opinion of solve the problems and  

problems for prolonging education system were the risk factors of career effects. On the other hand, student’s gender, marital status, feeling bad about yourself, symptoms of corona virus, feeling nervous, short term memory loss, mood change, communicating problem, lost interest, feeling helpless, continue of income, study interrupt, irritable mood were  associated factors of psychological problems. Family income status, feeling bad about yourself, lost interest, educational expenses, continue of income source, study interrupt, reason of study interrupt, were the factors associated with  financial problems.

Novelty: We have found many statistically significant risk factors of the psychological (depression, anxiety and mood disorder) as well as financial and career of the students in the pandemic situation, which have not been discussed in previous studies.

Cite This Paper

Fee Faysal Ahmed, Tonmoy Adhikary, Tania Sultana, Sheikh Sadia Arny, Faria Tabassum Nishi, Partho Bosu, Samiran Mondal, " Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of 'Psychological, Financial and Career Effect' Among Bangladeshi Undergraduate Students in the COVID-19 Pandemic Situation", International Journal of Mathematical Sciences and Computing(IJMSC), Vol.8, No.4, pp. 15-29, 2022. DOI: 10.5815/ijmsc.2022.04.02


[1]Shrestha R, Shrestha L. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Paediatric Perspective. JNMA: Journal of the Nepal Medical Association. 2020 Jul;58(227):525. Available from:
[2]WHO. WHO/Europe | Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak - WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. WHO/Europe, 2020. Available from:
[3]WHO. WHO Bangladesh COVID-19 Situation Report . Who, 2020. Available from:
[4]Staff C. coronavirus scare all educational institutions shut till March 31. The Daily Star, 2020. Available from:
[5]Dipu M. All educational institutions to remain closed till March 31. UNB NEWS. DHAKA; 2020. Available from:
[6]Tribune R. education-institutions-to-remain-closed-till-may-30. Dhaka Tribune. 2020. Available from:
[7]Islam, M. S., Sujan, M. S. H., Tasnim, R., Sikder, M. T., Potenza, M. N., & Van Os, J. (2020). Psychological responses during the COVID-19 outbreak among university students in Bangladesh. PloS one, 15(12), e0245083.Available from:
[8]Khan, A. H., Sultana, M. S., Hossain, S., Hasan, M. T., Ahmed, H. U., & Sikder, M. T. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health & wellbeing among home-quarantined Bangladeshi students: A cross-sectional pilot study. Journal of affective disorders, 277, 121-128. Available from:
[9]Abdul M. achieving-our-higher-education-targets- 1366513. The Daily Star, 2017. Available from:
[10]Islam, M. A., Barna, S. D., Raihan, H., & Khan, M. N. A., & Hossain, MT (2020). Depression and anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A web-based cross-sectional survey. PloS one, 15(8), e0238162.. Available from:
[11]Ahmed, O., Ahmed, M. Z., Alim, S. M. A. H. M., Khan, M. A. U., & Jobe, M. C. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh and associated psychological problems: An online survey. Death Studies, 1-10. Available from:
[12]Islam, M. S., Ferdous, M. Z., & Potenza, M. N. (2020). Panic and generalized anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic among Bangladeshi people: An online pilot survey early in the outbreak. Journal of affective disorders, 276, 30-37. Available from:
[13]Tasnim, R., Islam, M. S., Sujan, M. S. H., Sikder, M. T., & Potenza, M. N. (2020). Suicidal ideation among Bangladeshi university students early during the COVID-19 pandemic: Prevalence estimates and correlates. Children and youth services review, 119, 105703. Available from:
[14]Dutta, S., & Smita, M. K. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on tertiary education in Bangladesh: students’ perspectives. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 8(09), 53.. Available from: doi: 10.4236/jss.2020.89004.
[15]Rahman, M. S., Lassi, Z. S., & Islam, S. M. S. (2020). Risks to Bangladeshi children and young people during covid-19 outbreak. BMJ, 369.. Available from:
[16]Emon, E. K. H., Alif, A. R., & Islam, M. S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on the institutional education system and its associated students in Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 11(2), 34-46.Available from: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v11i230288
[17]Mir MJ. students-could-become-worst-victims-prolonged-closeure-105427 . THE BUSINESS STANDARD. 2020. Available from:
[18] Majumdar, P., Biswas, A., & Sahu, S. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown: cause of sleep disruption, depression, somatic pain, and increased screen exposure of office workers and students of India. Chronobiology international, 37(8), 1191-1200. Available from:
[19]Menon R, Gopika MP, Thomas S. Impact of COVID-19 On the Mental Health of College Students Within India and Outside India. International Journal of Research in Engineering, Science and Management. 2021 Jan 15;4(1):38-42.
[20]Charles, N. E., Strong, S. J., Burns, L. C., Bullerjahn, M. R., & Serafine, K. M. (2021). Increased mood disorder symptoms, perceived stress, and alcohol use among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry research, 296, 113706.. Available from:
[21]Topuniversities. 80% of UK Students Struggling Financially due to COVID -19. University, Survey National. 2020. Available from:
[22]Aristovnik, A., Keržič, D., Ravšelj, D., Tomaževič, N., & Umek, L. (2020). Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on life of higher education students: A global perspective. Sustainability, 12(20), 8438.Available from:
[23]Forakis J, March JL, Erdmann M. The Impact of COVID-19 on the Academic Plans and Career Intentions of Future STEM Professionals. Journal of Chemical Education. 2020 Aug 14;97(9):3336-40. Available from:
[24]Pourhoseingholi MA, Vahedi M, Rahimzadeh M. Sample size calculation in medical studies. Gastroenterology and Hepatology from bed to bench. 2013;6(1):14. Available from:
[25]Roser M, Ritchie H, Ortiz-Ospina E, Hasell J. Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Our world in data. 2020 May 26.
[26]WHO. COVID-19 disrupting mental health services in most countries, WHO survey. 2020. Available from:
[27]Onyema EM, Eucheria NC, Obafemi FA, Sen S, Atonye FG, Sharma A, Alsayed AO. Impact of Coronavirus pandemic on education. Journal of Education and Practice. 2020 May 31;11(13):108-21. Available from:
[28]Mamun A. Bangladesh decides to keep all educational institutions closed till Dec 19 | Dhaka Tribune. DhakaTribune. 2020. Available from:
[29]Shafiq, S., Nipa, S. N., Sultana, S., Rifat-Ur-Rahman, M., & Rahman, M. M. (2021). Exploring the triggering factors for mental stress of university students amid COVID-19 in Bangladesh: a perception-based study. Children and youth services review, 120, 105789. Available from:
[30]Khan, A. H., Sultana, M. S., Hossain, S., Hasan, M. T., Ahmed, H. U., & Sikder, M. T. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health & wellbeing among home-quarantined Bangladeshi students: A cross-sectional pilot study. Journal of affective disorders, 277, 121-128. Available from:
[31]Sifat, R. I. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: Mental stress, depression, anxiety among the university students in Bangladesh. Soc Psychiatry, 1(2).. Available from:DOI:10.1177/0020764020965995
[32]Rosario, L., Enrique, M., Matias, F., & Carlos, R. (2020). Anxiety, worry and perceived stress in the world due to COVID-19 pandemic, March 2020. Preliminary results. Journal of MedRxiv.Available from:
[33]Mamun, M. A., Hossain, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). Mental health problems and associated predictors among Bangladeshi students. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-15.Available from:
[34]Eisenberg, D., Golberstein, E., & Gollust, S. E. (2007). Help-seeking and access to mental health care in a university student population. Medical care, 594-601. Available from:
[35]Subramaniam, M., Abdin, E., Vaingankar, J. A., & Chong, S. A. (2013). Prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and severity of bipolar disorder: results from the Singapore Mental Health Study. Journal of affective disorders, 146(2), 189-196. Available from:
[36]Hossain, M. G., Bharati, P., Aik, S. A. W., Lestrel, P. E., Abeer, A., & Kamarul, T. (2012). Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors. Journal of biosocial science, 44(4), 385-399. Available from:
[37]Haider AA. Problems with our education sector | The Daily Star 2015. Available from:
[38]Mamun, M. A., Akter, S., Hossain, I., Faisal, M. T. H., Rahman, M. A., Arefin, A., ... & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Financial threat, hardship and distress predict depression, anxiety and stress among the unemployed youths: a Bangladeshi multi-city study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 276, 1149-1158.Available from:
[39]Hossain, S., Anjum, A., Uddin, M. E., Rahman, M. A., & Hossain, M. F. (2019). Impacts of socio-cultural environment and lifestyle factors on the psychological health of university students in Bangladesh: a longitudinal study. Journal of affective disorders, 256, 393-403. Available from:
[40]Uddin M. Effects of the pandemic on the education sector in Bangladesh . The Financial Express. 2020 . Available from:
[41]Kapasia, N., Paul, P., Roy, A., Saha, J., Zaveri, A., & Mallick, R. (2020). Children and Youth Services Review Impact of lockdown on learning status of undergraduate and postgraduate students during COVID-19 pandemic in West Bengal, India. Children and Youth Services Review, 116, 105194. Available from:
[42]Holmes, E. A. (2020). O‟ Connor RC, Perry VH, Tracey I, Wessely S, Arseneault L, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. Lancet Psychiatry, 7(6), 547-60. Available from:
[43]Cheng, S. Y., Wang, C. J., Shen, A. C. T., & Chang, S. C. (2020). How to safely reopen colleges and universities during COVID-19: experiences from Taiwan. Annals of internal medicine, 173(8), 638-641.Available from:
[44]Monira M, Saif U. Pandemic wreaks havoc on jobs, pay . The Financial Express. 2020. Available from:
[45]Shutterstock. Bangladesh update: 68% lost jobs in Dhaka, Chittagong due to Covid-19 | Business Standard News 2020 . Available from:
[46]Anwar, S., Nasrullah, M., & Hosen, M. J. (2020). COVID-19 and Bangladesh: challenges and how to address them. Frontiers in public health, 8, 154.. Available from:
[47]Ahamed, H., Hasan, K. T., Islam, M. T., & Galib, F. C. (2020). Lockdown Policy Dilemma: COVID-19 Pandemic versus Economy and Mental Health. Journal of Biomedical Analytics, 3(2), 37-58. Available from:
[48]Meo SA, Abukhalaf AA, Alomar AA, Sattar K, Klonoff DC. COVID-19 pandemic: impact of quarantine on medical students’ mental wellbeing and learning behaviors. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2020 May;36(COVID19-S4):S43. Available from:
[49]Safa, F., Anjum, A., Hossain, S., Trisa, T. I., Alam, S. F., Rafi, M. A., ... & Hasan, M. T. (2021). Immediate psychological responses during the initial period of the COVID-19 pandemic among Bangladeshi medical students. Children and Youth Services Review, 122, 105912.Available from:
[50]Elmer, T., Mepham, K., & Stadtfeld, C. (2020). Students under lockdown: Comparisons of students’ social networks and mental health before and during the COVID-19 crisis in Switzerland. Plos one, 15(7), e0236337. Available from:
[51]ET HealthWorld. Mental health_ Covid pandemic triggers anxiety disorder in people, say experts . 2020. Available from:
[52]Calvó-Perxas, L., Garre-Olmo, J., & Vilalta-Franch, J. (2015). Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of depressive and bipolar disorders in Catalonia (Spain) using DSM-5 criteria. Journal of affective disorders, 184, 97-103.Available from:
[53]Baticulon, R. E., Alberto, N. R. I., Baron, M. B. C., Mabulay, R. E. C., Rizada, L. G. T., Sy, J. J., ... & Reyes, J. C. B. (2020). Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines. medRxiv, 2020-07..
[54]Marcucci, P., Johnstone, D. B., & Ngolovoi, M. (2008). Higher educational cost-sharing, dual-track tuition fees, and higher educational access: The East African experience. Peabody Journal of Education, 83(1), 101-116.Available from:
[55]Eagle, L., & Brennan, R. (2007). Are students customers? TQM and marketing perspectives. Quality assurance in education.Available from:
[56]Lindsay S. COVID-19 pushes college students to drop out, which could devastate economy and their lives . USA TODAY. 2020. Available from:
[57]Nathan D. Stressed out, dropping out: COVID has taken its toll on uni students . The Conversation. 2020. Available from:
[58]Islam, S. D. U., Bodrud-Doza, M., Khan, R. M., Haque, M. A., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). Exploring COVID-19 stress and its factors in Bangladesh: a perception-based study. Heliyon, 6(7), e04399.. Available from: