Energy Efficient Multipath Routing in Zone-based Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: Mathematical Formulation

Full Text (PDF, 793KB), PP.37-48

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Vinay Sahu 1,* Rani Sahu 2

1. LNCT, Bhopal

2. UIT RGPV, Bhopal

* Corresponding author.


Received: 22 Apr. 2022 / Revised: 27 May 2022 / Accepted: 25 Jun. 2022 / Published: 8 Aug. 2022

Index Terms

Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Dynamic Mobility, Energy Efficiency, Zone based technology, Wireless Routing Protocol.


A wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic network that can be built without the need for any central governance system and pre-existing infrastructure, in which each node can act as a router. During the transmission of information in any network, energy consumption is an important factor for the efficiency and lifetime of the network. A reduction in energy consumption is achieved by detecting the energy consumption at the node at each stage of transmission.

The main objective of this paper is to formulate mathematical models of energy consumption. A mathematical model of the energy consumption of a network is to be built on the basis of available nodes and links to formulate mathematical models related to energy. When constructing this mathematical model for the challenge related to mobility and low connectivity due to limited battery power in the network, the failure of the links present in the network and the estimated energy consumption are taken into account. Due to the greater mobility of this type of network, nodes rapidly change their positions, causing nodes to drain the battery very quickly, thus reducing network performance. So we need a mathematical model which helps in developing a mathematical model after developing a conceptual model. Which helps in predicting the quantitative behavior of a system. Weaknesses and strengths of a model can be identified from the quantitative results of a mathematical model.

Cite This Paper

Vinay Sahu, Rani Sahu, "Energy Efficient Multipath Routing in Zone-based Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: Mathematical Formulation", International Journal of Mathematical Sciences and Computing(IJMSC), Vol.8, No.3, pp. 37-48, 2022. DOI:10.5815/ijmsc.2022.03.04


[1]D. Kaur and N. Kumar, "Comparative analysis of AODV, OLSR, TORA, DSR and DSDV routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc networks," International Journal of Computer network and information security, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 39, 2013.

[2]R. Fotohi, S. Jamali, and F. Sarkohaki, "Performance evaluation of aodv, lhc-aodv, olsr, ul-olsr, dsdv routing protocols," International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science (IJITCS), vol. 5, p. 21, 2013.

[3]D. K. Sharma, A. N. Patra, and C. Kumar, "An update based energy-efficient reactive routing protocol for mobile Ad Hoc networks," International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, vol. 5, no. 11, p. 17, 2013.

[4]M. C. Aye and A. M. Aung, "A Modified Energy Constrained Protocol based on AOMDV for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research, vol. 3, no. 35, pp. 7013-7018, 2014.

[5]K. Khan and W. Goodridge, "Energy aware Ad-Hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing," International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 50-56, 2015.

[6]K. Rajasekaran and K. Balasubramanian, "Energy conscious based multipath routing algorithm in WSN," International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 27, 2016.

[7]O. Smail, B. Cousin, R. Mekki, and Z. Mekkakia, "A multipath energy-conserving routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks lifetime improvement," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2014, no. 1, p. 139, 2014.

[8]N. M. Lutimath, L. Suresh, and C. Naikodi, "Energy Aware Multipath AODV Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network," International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN, pp. 2319-6890, 2016.

[9]A. Taha, R. Alsaqour, M. Uddin, M. Abdelhaq, and T. Saba, "Energy efficient multipath routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc network using the fitness function," IEEE access, vol. 5, pp. 10369-10381, 2017.

[10]S. Vijayaragavan, K. Duraiswamy, B. Kalavathi, and S. Madhavi, "Power-aware multiple path multicast adhoc on demand distance vector routing protocol," IJCA special issue on Mobile Adhoc Networks MANETs, 2010.

[11]F. Abbas and P. Fan, "Clustering-based reliable low-latency routing scheme using ACO method for vehicular networks," Vehicular Communications, vol. 12, pp. 66-74, 2018.

[12]P. Patil and M. Rizvi, "Issues and Challenges in Energy Aware algorithms using clusters in MANET," International Journal, vol. 2, no. 2, 2013.

[13]M. Ahmad, A. Hameed, A. A. Ikram, and I. Wahid, "State-of-the-art clustering schemes in mobile ad hoc networks: objectives, challenges, and future directions," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 17067-17081, 2019.

[14]R. Sahu, S. Sharma, and M. Rizvi, "ZBLE: zone based leader election energy constrained AOMDV routing protocol," International Journal of Computer Networks and Applications, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 39-46, 2019.

[15]N. Patwari and A. O. Hero III, "Using proximity and quantized RSS for sensor localization in wireless networks," in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM international conference on Wireless sensor networks and applications, 2003, pp. 20-29.

[16]I. D. Chakeres and E. M. Belding-Royer, "The utility of hello messages for determining link connectivity," in The 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, 2002, vol. 2, pp. 504-508: IEEE.

[17]J. Fisher and T. A. Henzinger, "Executable cell biology," Nature biotechnology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1239-1249, 2007.

[18]R. Sahu, S. Sharma, and M. Rizvi, "ZBLE: Zone Based Leader Selection Protocol," 2019.

[19]N. Sharma, F. Nocera, and P. Gardoni, "Classification and mathematical modeling of infrastructure interdependencies," Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 4-25, 2021.

[20]V. Jain, D. Tiwari, S. Singh, and S. Sharma, "Impact of IPv4, IPv6 and Dual Stack Interface over Wireless Networks," International Journal of Computer Network & Information Security, vol. 10, no. 4, 2018.