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Distributed Generation, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), EV Charging Station, Smart Grid
Saving energy through the minimization of power losses in a distribution system is a key activity for efficient operation. Distributed Generation (DG) is one of the most efficient approaches to minimize losses. With increase in installation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs) for Electrical Vehicles (EVs) in larger scale, optimal planning of EVCSs becomes a major challenge for distribution system operator. With increased EV load penetration in the electricity system, generation-demand mismatch and power losses increases. This results in poor voltage level, and deterioration in voltage stability margin. To mitigate the adverse impacts of increasing EV load penetration on Radial Distribution Systems (RDS), it is essential to integrate EVCSs at appropriate locations. The EVs integration into smart distribution systems involves Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) in charging and discharging modes of operation respectively for exchange of power with the grid thus resulting in energy management. The inappropriate planning of EVCSs causes a negative impact on the distribution system such as voltage deviation and an increase in power losses. In order to minimize this, DG units are integrated with EVCSs. The DGs assist in keeping the voltage profile within limitations, resulting in reduced power flows and losses, thereby enhancing power quality and reliability. Therefore, the DGs should be optimally allocated and sized along with the EVCS to avoid problems such as protection, voltage rise, and reverse power flow problems. This paper showcases a method to minimize losses using optimal location and sizing of multiple DGs and EVCS operating in G2V and V2G modes. The sizing and location of different types of DG units including renewables and non-renewables along with EV charging station is proposed in this study. This methodology overall reduces the power losses and also improves voltages of the network. The implementation is done by using the Simultaneous Particle Swarm Optimization technique (PSO) for IEEE 15, 33, 69 and 85 bus systems. The results indicate that the proposed optimization technique improves efficiency and performance of the system by optimal planning and operation of both DGs and EVs.
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