IJIGSP Vol. 6, No. 3, Feb. 2014
Cover page and Table of Contents: PDF (size: 140KB)
Many of the adaptive watermarking schemes reported in the literature consider only local audio signal properties. Many schemes require complex computation along with manual parameter settings. In this paper, we propose a novel, fuzzy, adaptive audio watermarking algorithm based on both global and local audio signal properties. The algorithm performs well for dynamic range of audio signals without requiring manual initial parameter selection. Here, mean value of energy (MVE) and variance of spectral flux (VSF) of a given audio signal constitutes global components, while the energy of each audio frame acts as local component. The Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) step size Δ is made adaptive to both the global and local features. The global component automates the initial selection of Δ using the fuzzy inference system while the local component controls the variation in it based on the energy of individual audio frame. Hence Δ adaptively controls the strength of watermark to meet both the robustness and inaudibility requirements, making the system independent of audio nature. Experimental results reveal that our adaptive scheme outperforms other fixed step sized QIM schemes and adaptive schemes and is highly robust against general attacks.[...] Read more.
Steganography involves hiding information in another media. PVD based steganography techniques uses the difference between the pixel values of a pair directly to hide the information. The proposed steganography system modifies the difference value before being used for hiding the information. This makes extraction of hidden data harder in case the steganography system fails. The algorithm divides the cover image in the block of 2 x 3 pixels and calculates average (N) of the bits that can be hidden in five pairs of that block. Thus if the difference value allows M-bits to be hidden in the pair, then only N-bits are hidden in that pair when M >N otherwise M (if M≤N) bits are hidden in that pair. Second level of security is added by converting the secret information into gray code before embedding it in the cover image. The algorithm provides good hiding capacity and improved quality of stego image with two levels of security for the secret information.[...] Read more.
Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is nature inspired algorithm based on foraging behavior of ants. The algorithm is based on the fact how ants deposit pheromone while searching for food. ACO generates a pheromone matrix which gives the edge information present at each pixel position of image, formed by ants dispatched on image. The movement of ants depends on local variance of image's intensity value. This paper proposes an improved method based on heuristic which assigns weight to the neighborhood. Thus by assigning the weights or priority to the neighboring pixels, the ant decides in which direction it can move. The method is applied on Medical images and experimental results are provided to support the superior performance of the proposed approach and the existing method.[...] Read more.
An important constituents for image classification is the identification of significant characterstics about the specific class to distinguish intra class variations. Since performance of the classifiers is affected in the presence of noise, so selection of discriminative features is an important phase in classification. This superfluous information i.e. noise, e.g. additive noise may occur in images due to image sensors i.e. of the constant noise level in dark areas of the image or salt & pepper noise may be caused by analog to digitals conversion and bit error transmission etc.. Detection of noise is also very essential in the images for choosing appropriate filter. This paper presents an experimental assessment of neural classifier in terms of classification accuracy under three different constraints of images without noise, in presence of unknown noise and after elimination of noise.[...] Read more.
Gait analysis is basically referred to study of human locomotion. From the surveillance point of view behavioral biometrics and recognition at a distance are becoming more popular in researchers rather than interactive and Physiological biometrics. In this paper, a time efficient Human gait identification system is proposed. Initially Human silhouettes are extracted by using temporal median background subtraction on video frames, which successfully removes shadows and models even complex background, proposed gait algorithm extracts contours from foreground silhouettes images and then three bounding boxes are drawn around contoured human image 1) upper part for arms movement 2) middle part for thigh and knee angles 3) Lower part for legs movement, knee and ankle angles. Gait cycles are extracted to find gait period and to take final decision for gait features selection, which is used for training. Thigh, Knee, Ankle angles and bounding boxes' widths are used as gait signatures but middle portion of human contains less variations of width in gait cycle hence computing efficiency can be achieved by ignoring width factor of middle part. SVM based training and identification is performed on extracted gait features. The proposed system is assessed using publicly available gait datasets and some indoor experimental videos created for this research work. The results reveal that the proposed algorithm is able to achieve an outstanding recognition rate.[...] Read more.
Research good representation is a problem in image processing for this, our works are focused in developing and proposes some new transform which can represent the edge of image more efficiently, Among these transform we find the wavelet and ridgelet transform these both types transforms are not optimal for images with complex geometry, so we replace this two types classical transform with other effectiveness transform named bandelet transform, this transform is appropriate for the analysis of edges of the images and can preserve the detail information of high frequency of noisy image. De-noising is one of the most interesting and widely investigated topics in image processing area. In order to eliminate noise we exploit in this paper the geometrical advantages offered by the bandelet transform to solve the problem of image de-noising. To arrive to determine which type transform allows us high quality visual image, a comparison is made between bandelet, curvelet, ridgelet and wavelet transform, after determining the best transform, we going to determine which type of image is adapted to this transform. Numerically, we show that bandelet transform can significantly outperform and gives good performances for medical image type TOREX, and this is justified by a higher PSNR value for gray images.[...] Read more.
As you know, age diagnosis based on the image is one of the most attractive topics in computer .In this paper, we present a intelligent model to estimate the age of face image. We use shape and texture feature extraction from FG-NET landmark image data set using AAM(Active Appearance Model), CLM (Constrained Local Model), tree Mixture algorithms. Finally, the obtained features were given as the training data to the ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy influence system), FSVM (Fuzzy Support Vector Machine). Our experimental results show that In our proposed system, fuzzy svm has less errors and system worked more accurate and appropriative than prior methods. Our system is able to identify age of face image from different directions as is.[...] Read more.
Biometrics identification methods have proved to be very efficient, more natural and easy for users than traditional methods of human identification. Biometrics methods truly identify humans, not keys and cards they posses or passwords they should remember. Ear on the other hand, has a more uniform distribution of color, so almost all information is conserved when converting the original image into gray scales. We propose the ear as a biometric and investigate it with both 2D and 3D data. The ICP-based algorithm also demonstrates good scalability with size of dataset. These results are encouraging in that they suggest a strong potential for 3D ear shape as a biometric. Multi-biometric 2D and 3D ear recognition are also explored. The proposed automatic ear detection method will integrate with the current system, and the performance will be evaluated with the original one. The investigation of ear recognition under less controlled conditions will focus on the robustness and variability of ear biometrics. Multi-modal biometrics using 3D ear images will be explored, and the performance will be compared to existing biometrics experimental results.[...] Read more.