International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security (IJCNIS)

IJCNIS Vol. 7, No. 2, Jan. 2015

Cover page and Table of Contents: PDF (size: 112KB)

Table Of Contents


LEFT: A Latency and Energy Efficient Flexible TDMA Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

By Sachin Gajjar Nilav Choksi Mohanchur Sarkar Kankar Dasgupta

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2015

This paper proposes latency and energy efficient flexible TDMA (LEFT), a medium access control (MAC) combined with routing protocol for data gathering from number of source nodes to a master station (MS) in a wireless sensor network (WSN). TDMA provides fairness, collision-free communication and reduces idle listening, which saves network energy. Data latency is reduced by allocating same transmission slots to nodes falling out of interference range of each other. Unlike a conventional TDMA, LEFT provides flexibility through slot seizing, wherein a non-holder of a slot can use slot when holder does not have data to send. This increases channel utilization and adaption to dynamic traffic patterns of WSN applications. Further, a node on a multi-hop path towards MS decides to participate in routing based on (i) its location with respect to MS, to forward data in correct direction, (ii) its current status of residual energy, to uniformly distribute energy across network, (iii) its transit traffic load, to prevent local congestion, (iv) its communication link quality, to guarantee reliable data delivery. This decision requires simple comparisons against thresholds, and thus is very simple to implement on energy, storage and computationally constrained nodes. LEFT also encompasses techniques to cater to link and node breakdowns. Experimental analysis of LEFT; Advertisement-based TDMA; Data gathering MAC; Energy Efficient Fast Forwarding and Cross layer MAC protocols using TI’s EZ430-RF2500T nodes shows that LEFT is 65% more energy efficient compared to Cross layer MAC. Data latency of LEFT is 27 % less, delivery ratio is 17 % more and goodput is 11 % more compared to Cross layer MAC.

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Efficient Image Steganogrphic Algorithms Utilizing Transforms: Wavelet and Contourlet with Blowfish Encryption

By Saddaf Rubab Younus Javed

DOI: ijcnis.2015.02.02, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2015

Steganography is a means to hide the existence of information exchange. Using this technique the sender embeds the secret information in some other media. This is done by replacing useless data in ordinary computer files with some other secret information. The secret information could be simple text, encoded text or images. The media used as the embedding plane could be an image, audio, video or text files. Using steganography ensures that no one apart from the sender and the receiver knows about the existence of the message. In this paper, a steganography method based on transforms used i.e. Wavelet and Contourlet. Devised algorithm was used against each transform. Blowfish Encryption method is also embedded to double the security impact. The major advantage of applying transforms is that the image quality is not degraded even if the number of embedded characters is increased. The proposed system operates well in most of the test cases. The average payload capacity is also considerably high.

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PNFEA: A Proposal Approach for Proactive Network Forensics Evidence Analysis to Resolve Cyber Crimes

By Mohammad Rasmi Ahmad Al-Qerem

DOI: ijcnis.2015.02.03, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2015

Nowadays, cyber crimes are increasing and have affected large organizations with highly sensitive information. Consequently, the affected organizations spent more resources analyzing the cyber crimes rather than detecting and preventing these crimes. Network forensics plays an important role in investigating cyber crimes; it helps organizations resolve cyber crimes as soon as possible without incurring a significant loss. This paper proposes a new approach to analyze cyber crime evidence. The proposed approach aims to use cyber crime evidence to reconstruct useful attack evidence. Moreover, it helps investigators to resolve cyber crime efficiently. The results of the comparison of the proposed approach prove that it is more efficient in terms of time and cost compared with the generic and the modern process approach for network forensics.

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Extending the WSN lifetime by Dividing the Network Area into a Specific Zones

By Mishall H. Awaad Wid A. Jebbar

DOI: ijcnis.2015.02.04, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2015

LEACH protocol is considered the best in the WSN protocols in extending the network lifetime and reduces energy loss, but LEACH suffers from the problem of the correct distribution of the nodes correlation with CHs. In this paper, we propose an improved protocol called LEACH-Z(LEACH zones), this protocol improves the distribution of clusters by making the clusters near the base station(BS) large(greater number of nodes) and the clusters are far from BS small(lesser number of nodes), where divides the network area to parts(zones), be part of a larger when close to the BS in addition to preventing the election of CHs in the region far from the BS and thus conserve energy this means that the nodes will remain alive as long as possible, this makes nodes gather more information. The results proved that the LEACH-Z is better than the original LEACH and more optimizations to reduce energy consumption.

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A Scalable Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Based Architecture for Fire Disaster Monitoring in the Developing World

By Emmanuel Lule Tonny Eddie Bulega

DOI: ijcnis.2015.02.05, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2015

All over the world, there is a tremendous increase in disaster occurrences such as landslide, toxic gas pollutions and wild fires. Least developed countries like Uganda have taken minimal efforts in management and containment of such disasters on behalf of the local populace. The dangers of fires are as a result of lack of proper information about the location, intensity and rate of spread of fire. However, the use of WSN may be one of the alternative ways of reducing risks associated with spreading fires resulting into destruction of lives and property worth millions of shillings. Our research looks at fire monitoring using sensors deployed in an event field to detect possible precursors of a fire occurrence using a simulated approach of OPNET Modeler (Ver. 14.0). Mobile nodes were deployed in proximity of (500X500) m2 flat space moving at a uniform speed of 10ms-1 for 30 minutes. Our simulations are based on ftp high priority traffic to reflect real time information transfer for analysis. This paper evaluates and discusses how sensed information can be transmitted through a network with minimal delay and proposes a scalable WSN architectural design based on protocol perspective i.e. AODV and DSR. Two QoS parameters have been considered i.e. delay and throughput. Our results show that AODV scheme has got a minimum delay of 0.2ms-1and a maximum throughput of 1.7Mbps. Hence it’s highly recommended for monitoring fires in large open area settings compared to DSR that is suitable for smaller areas. Results show that DSR exhibits higher delays due to nodal congestion and high control overheads. However, introducing the proposed heterogeneous routing mechanism i.e. (AODV+DSR) into the network significantly improves the performance of DSR.

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Helper Feedback based Medium Access Control Protocol: A Reliable Co-operative MAC Scheme for MANET

By Nidhi Newalkar Piyush Kumar Shukla Sanjay Silakari

DOI: ijcnis.2015.02.06, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2015

A novel multirate media access control based co-operative scheme has been proposed. It has been observed that any co-operative scheme gives a better performance only if the helper nodes selected to, relay the transmission from source to destination are reliable enough. Murad Khalid has already proposed a protocol [24] where more than one helper nodes are selected to improve the reliability, so that if one fails the other can be used as a backup. But in this paper focus is on selection of reliable helpers. If a helper node has a high data rate, has successfully relayed traffic in the past and also has some minimum amount of energy left , not only for relaying traffic for others but also to conduct its own transmissions, then it acts as a suitable candidate to be chosen as a helper node. Such a co-operatives scheme enhances the throughput, reliability and overall performance of the network.Simulation has been conducted to show that the proposed scheme performs better than the

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Augmented Reality Mobile Application of Balinese Hindu Temples: DewataAR

By Adi Ferliyanto Waruwu I Putu Agung Bayupati I Ketut Gede Darma Putra

DOI: ijcnis.2015.02.07, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2015

Augmented reality is a visual technology which combines virtual objects into the real environment in real time. E-tourism in Bali needs to be optimized, so that information technology can help tourists and provide new experiences when traveling. Generally, tourists wish for gaining information in an attractive way about visiting tourism objects. Nowadays, mobile-based application programs that provide information about tourism objects in Bali are rarely found. Therefore, it is important to develop an application which provides information system about tourism objects, especially about the Tanah Lot temple. By implementing augmented reality technology, which grows rapidly all over the world, the application of DewataAR can show 3 dimensional objects, video, and audio information of the temples. The application works by scanning brochure of tourism object by using an Android smartphone or tablet, then it can display 3 dimensional objects, video, and audio information about those tourism objects. Hence, augmented reality can be alternative media for promoting tourism object attractively for tourists and also be able to develop tourism in Bali.

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Performance Evaluation of Power Aware VM Consolidation using Live Migration

By Gaganpreet Kaur Sehdev Anil Kumar

DOI:, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2015

Power Efficiency is the efficient use of power and is a crucial come forth in cloud computing environment. Green Computing is nothing but is a cloud computing with efficient use of power and green refers to make the environment friendly to the user by saving heat and power. Data centre power efficiency in cloud environment will be reduced when virtualization is used as contrary to physical resource deployment to book adequate to grant all application requests. Nevertheless, in any case of the resource provisioning approximation, occasion remains in the way in which they are made attainable and workload is scheduled. The objective of this research work is therefore to pack workload into servers, selected as a function of their cost to operate, to achieve (or as close to) the utmost endorsed employment in a cost-efficient manner, avoiding occurrences where devices are under-utilized and management cost is acquired inefficiently. This work has enhanced the existing work by introducing the dynamic wake up calls either to shut down the active servers or restart the passive server. The wakeup calls has been initiated dynamically. The overall objective is to decrease the response time of users which will be increased during wakeup time in existing research work.

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