International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security(IJCNIS)

ISSN: 2074-9090 (Print), ISSN: 2074-9104 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJCNIS Vol.8, No.6, Jun. 2016

Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks- A Survey

Full Text (PDF, 563KB), PP.38-51

Views:341   Downloads:8


Sukhkirandeep Kaur, Roohie Naaz Mir

Index Terms

Wireless sensor networks (WSN);Quality of service (QoS);Clustering;Routing protocols


Increased demand of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in various applications has made it a hot research area. Several challenges imposed which include energy conservation, scalability, limited network resources etc. with energy conservation being the most important. Clustering improves the energy efficiency by making high power nodes as cluster heads (CHs) which reduces the chance of energy depletion of nodes. Scalability, fault tolerance, data aggregation, energy efficiency are some of the main objectives of clustering. This paper discusses various challenges associated with clustering and different methods or techniques developed to overcome these challenges. Various clustering approaches have been summarized and few prominent Quality of service (QoS) based clustering routing protocols for WSN have been identified. Comparison of these approaches and protocols is discussed based on some parameters.

Cite This Paper

Sukhkirandeep Kaur, Roohie Naaz Mir,"Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks- A Survey", International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security(IJCNIS), Vol.8, No.6, pp.38-51, 2016.DOI: 10.5815/ijcnis.2016.06.05


[1]M. Younis, K. Akkaya, "Strategies and techniques for node placement in wireless sensor networks: A survey", Ad Hoc Networks 6 (4), pp.621-655, 2008.

[2]R. Mulligan, H.M. Ammari, "Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey", Network Protocols and Algorithms, ISSN 1943-3581, 2010.

[3]J. Hill, M. Horton, R. Kling, L. Krishnamurthy, "The platforms enabling wireless sensor networks", Communications of the ACM, pp. 41 – 46, 2004.

[4]H.Jadidoleslamy, "An introduction to various basic concepts of clustering techniques on wireless sensor networks", International journal of Mobile Network Communications & Telematics (IJMNCT), Vol. 3, February 2013.

[5]R.M.B. Hani and A.A. Ijjeh, "A survey on leach based energy aware protocols for wireless sensor networks", Journal of communication, vol. 8, 2013.

[6]P. Kuila, P. K. Jana, "Energy Efficient Load-Balanced Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks", ICCCS-2012, pp-771-777, 2012.

[7]T. Gao, R. Jin, "A regional centralized clustering routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks", IEEE, 2008.

[8]E.I. Oyman and C. Ersoy, "Multiple sink network design problem in large scale wireless sensor networks", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2004), Paris, June 2004.

[9]H. Huang, J.Whu, "A probabilistic clustering algorithm in wireless sensor networks", in: Proceeding of IEEE 62nd Semi-annual Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC), September 2005.

[10]W.Heinzelman, A.Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "Energy-Efficient Communication Protocols for Wireless Microsensor Networks", Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaaian International Conference on Systems Science (HICSS), January 2000.

[11]K. Padmanabhan, P. Kamalakkannan, "Energy-efficient Dynamic Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks", International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 38– No.11, January 2012.

[12]D.Kumar, T.C. Aseri, R.B.Patel, "EEHC: Energy efficient heterogeneous clustered scheme for wireless sensor networks", Computer Communications, Vol.32, pp-662-667, 2009.

[13]D.J. Baker and A. Ephremides, "The architectural organization of a mobile radio network via a distributed algorithm", IEEE Transactions on Communications, pp.1694–1701, 1981.

[14]Y. Jin, L. Wang, Y. Kim, X. Yang, "EEMC: An energy-efficient multi-level clustering algorithm for large-scale wireless sensor networks", pp.542-562, 2008.

[15]S. Selvakennedy and S. Sinnapan, "The Time-Controlled Clustering Algorithm for Optimized Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, pp.509-510, 2005.

[16]O. Younis, S. Fahmy, "HEED: Hybrid Energy Efficient Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad hoc Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2004.

[17]P.Ding, J. Holliday, A.Celik, "Distributed Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks", Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, 2005.

[18]H.Chan, A. Perrig, "ACE: An emergent algorithm for highly uniform cluster formation", European Workshop on Sensor networks (EWSN), January 2004.

[19]L.Yu, N. Wang, W.Zhang, "GROUP: A Grid-Clustering Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks", WiCOM, pp. 1-5, 2006.

[20]K. Xu and M.Gerla, "A heterogeneous routing protocol based on a new stable clustering Scheme", in Proceeding of IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM2002), Anaheim, CA, October 2002.

[21]A. Patra, S. Chouhan, "Energy Efficient Hybrid multihop clustering algorithm in wireless sensor networks", COMNETSAT, pp.59-63, 2013.

[22]Bhaskar Bhuyan, Hiren Kumar Deva Sarma, Nityananda Sarma, Avijit Kar, Rajib Mall, "Quality of Service (QoS) Provisions in Wireless Sensor Networks and Related Challenges", Wireless Sensor Network Journal , pp. 861-868, 2012.

[23]J. Othman, B. Yahya, "Energy efficient and QoS based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks", Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, pp. 849-857, August, 2010.

[24]J. Zhu, C.H.Lung,V. Srivastave, "Hybrid Clustering Technique using Quantitative and Qualitative data for Wireless Sensor Networks", Elsevier, Ad-hoc networks, volume 25, pp-38-53, 2015

[25]Z.Wang, W. Lou, Z. Wang, J. Ma, and H. Chen "A Hybrid Cluster based target tracking protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (HCTT)", International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Article id 494863, 2013.

[26]Ossama Younis, Sonia Fahmy, "HEED: A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad Hoc Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.3, no. 4, pp. 366-379, October 2004.

[27]H. Huang, J.Wu, "A Probabilistic Clustering Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE, 2005.

[28]S. Bandyopadhyay and E. J. Coyle, "An Energy Efficient Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks", INFOCOM, 2003.

[29]S. Banerjee and S. Khuller, "A clustering scheme for hierarchical control in multi-hop wireless networks", in Proceedings of 20th Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOMŠ 01), Anchorage, AK, April 2001.

[30]Z. Yanagihara, J. Taketsugu, "EACLE: Energy-Aware Clustering Scheme with Transmission Power Control for Sensor Networks", Wireless Personal Communications, pp. 401-415, 2007.

[31]R. Tandon, B. Dey and S. Nandi, "Weight based clustering in wireless sensor networks", Communications (NCC), 2013.

[32]D. Turgut, S. K. Das, R. Elmasri, and B. Turgut, "Optimizing clustering algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks using genetic algorithmic approach," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, pp. 62-66, 2002.

[33]S. Selvakennedy, S. Sinnappan, "A biologically-inspired clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks", Journal Computer Communications, pp. 2786-2801, 2007.

[34]I. Wokoma, L. L.Shum, L.Sacks, I.Marshall, "A Biologically-Inspired Clustering Algorithm Dependent on Spatial Data in Sensor Networks", proceedings of the Second European Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks, 2005.

[35]M. Mazaheri, B. Homayounfar and S. Mazinani, "QoS Based and Energy Aware Multi-Path Hierarchical Routing Algorithm in WSNs", Wireless Sensor Network, pp. 31-39, 2012.

[36]J. Othman, B. Yahya, "Energy efficient and QoS based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks", Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, pp.849-857, August, 2010.

[37]A. R. Rezaie and M. Mirnia, "CMQ: Clustering based Multipath routing algorithm to improving QoS in wireless sensor networks", IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science , Vol. 9, Issue 3, No 1, May 2012.

[38]A.O. Fapojuwo, A. C.Tinoco, "Energy Consumption and Message Delay Analysis of QoS Enhanced Base Station Controlled Dynamic Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE transactions on wireless communications, 2009.

[39]S. Prakash T, K.B. Raja, "Real-Time Link Reliability Routing for QoS in Wireless Sensor Networks", pp. 05-16, 2014.

[40]X. Huang and Y. Fang, "Multiconstrained QoS Mutlipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks", Wireless Net-works, pp. 465-478,2008. 

[41]M. Liu, J.-N. Cao, G.-H. Chen and X.-M. Wang, "An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Net-works," Sensors, pp. 445-462, 2009. 

[42]Faezeh Hajiaghajani, Marjan Naderan,Hossein Pedram, Mehdi Dehgha, "HCMTT: Hybrid Clustering for Multi-Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks", 4th International Workshop on Sensor Networks and Ambient Intelligence, 2012.

[43]Xuxun Liu, "A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks", Sensors, 2012.

[44]K. Akkaya and M. Younis, "A Survey on Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks", Ad Hoc Networks, pp. 325-349, 2005.

[45]D. Goyal, M.R. Tripathy, "Routing protocols in wireless sensor networks: A Survey", Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies (ACCT), pp.474 – 480, 2012.

[46]Zhang/RFID and Sensor Networks, Chapter 12, "Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks", pp.335, 2009.

[47]Luis Javier, García Villalba, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Alicia Triviño Cabrera and Cláudia Jacy Barenco Abbas, "Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network", Sensors, 2009.

[48]A. Joshi, M. Priya Lakshmi, "A Survey of Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network", 2011.

[49]Boyinbode, O.; Le, H.; Mbogho, A.; Takizawa, M; Poliah, R., "A Survey on Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks" , In Proceedings of 2010 13th International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems, Takayama, pp. 358–364,2010.