Geographic Load Balanced Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Full Text (PDF, 1216KB), PP.62-70

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Robin Guleria 1,* Ankit Kumar Jain 2

1. IBM India

2. Lovely Professional University, India

* Corresponding author.


Received: 7 Nov. 2012 / Revised: 18 Feb. 2013 / Accepted: 26 Apr. 2013 / Published: 8 Jun. 2013

Index Terms

Wireless Sensor Network, Routing protocol, Load balance


Recently the application domains of wireless sensor networks have grown exponentially. Traditional routing algorithm generates traffic related to route discovery to destination. Geographic routing algorithms exploit location information well but the problem of congestion and collision throttle its full employment for resource constrained wireless sensor networks. In this paper we present a Geographic Load Balanced Routing (GLBR), explores a technique Load balancing for WSNs which can be a viable solution to the challenges of geographic routing. Load balancing can be realized through two approaches. GLBR defines parameters based on communication overhead at sensor nodes and wireless link status through which load can be balanced across whole network. GLBR approach exploits the existing Geographic Routing approach i.e. Greedy forwarding by considering not only the distance between next hop and destination as single parameter for packet forwarding but also consider overhead at node. When load at a node is high GLBR looks for an alternate option for packet forwarding. Thus GLBR divert traffic to obviate congestion and hence avoid disconnections in the network.

Cite This Paper

Robin Guleria, Ankit Kumar Jain, "Geographic Load Balanced Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks", International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security(IJCNIS), vol.5, no.8, pp.62-70, 2013. DOI:10.5815/ijcnis.2013.08.08


[1]Tingh-Chao Hou and Victor O.K. L, "Transmission range control in multihop packet radio networks," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 34(1), pp. 38-44, 1986.
[2]Gregory G. Finn, "Routing and addressing problems in large metropolitan scale internetworks," Technical Report ISI/RR-87-180, ISI, March 1987.
[3]E. Kranakis, H. Singh, and J. Urrutia," Compass routing on geometric networks," In Proceedings of the 11th Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry, pp 51-54, August 1999.
[4]B. Karp, and H. T. Kung," GPSR: Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks," In Proc. ACM/IEEE MobiCom, pp 243 – 254, Aug. 2000.
[5]Y. Yu, D. Estrin, and R. Govindan," Geographical and Energy-Aware Routing: A Recursive Data Dissemination Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks," UCLA Computer Science Department Technical Report, UCLA-CSD TR-01-0023, May 2001.
[6]F. Kuhn, R. Wattenhofer, and A. Zollinger. "Worst-Case Optimal and Average-Case Efficient Geometric Ad-Hoc Routing", In Proceedings of 4th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc 2003),pp 267 - 278 June 2003.
[7]Ben Leong, Barbara Liskov, and Robert Morris "Geographic Routing without Planarization", In Proceedings of the 3rd conference on NSDI 2006 - Volume 3 pp.25 – 25,2006.
[8]Brad Karp. Challenges in geographic routing: Sparse networks, obstacles, and traffic provisioning, May 2001.
[9]Y.J. Kim, R. Govindan, B. Karp, and S. Shenker "On the pitfalls of geographic face routing", In Proceedings of DIAL-M-POMC 2005, pp. 34 – 43 September 2005.
[10]J. Kim, R. Govindan, B. Karp, and S. Shenker "Geographic routing made practical", In Proceedings of NSDI 2005, pp. 217-–230, May 2005.
[11]JOHNSON, D. B., AND MALTZ, D. B. "Dynamic source routing in adhoc wireless networks. In Mobile Computing", T. Imielinski and H. Korth, Eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, ch. 5, pp. 153–181,1996.
[12]L. Dooley, I. Gondal, and M. Iqbal, "An energy-time based load balancing technique for wireless sensor networks," in Intelligent Sensors, In Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Sensor Networks and Information Processing, pp 57-62, 2005.
[13]I. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor networks," IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 102-114, Aug. 2002.
[14]M. Gerla, and S. Lee,"Dynamic load-aware routing in ad hoc networks," in Communications, 2001. ICC 2001. IEEE International Conference on," vol 10 ,pp 3206-3210, 2001.
[15]A. Argyriou, and V. Madisetti, "Realizing load-balancing in ad-hoc networks with a transport layer protocol," In Proc. of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2004, IEEE., pp. 1897-1902, March 2004.
[16]Le Zou, Mi Lu, and Zixiang Xiong, "A Distributed Algorithm for the Dead End Problem of Location Based Routing in Sensor Networks,"In Proc. Of Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 54, no. 4, July 2005.
[17]Guoliang Xing, Chenyang Lu, Robert Pless, and Qingfeng Huang," On greedy geographic routing algorithms in sensing-covered networks," In Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc 2004), pages 31.42, 2004.
[18]B.Baranidharan, B.Shanthi, "A Survey on Energy Efficient Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks, "International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 11– No.10, December 2010.
[19]Prosenjit Bose, Pat Morin, Ivan Stojmenovic, and Jorge Urrutia. "Routing with guaranteed delivery in ad hoc wireless networks," Wireless Networks, 7(6):609.616, 200118.
[20]Jie Gao, Leonidas J. Guibas, John Hershberger, Li Zhang, and An Zhu, "Geometric spanner for routing in mobile networks, " In Proc. of the 2001 ACM Symposium on Mobile AdHoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc 2001), pages 45.55, July 2001.
[21]S Radhakrishnan, Gopal Racherla, Chandra N. Sekharan, N. S.V Rao, and S.G. Batsell. DST, "Arouting protocol for ad hoc networks using distributed spanning trees, "In IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 1999.
[22]Rodrigo Fonseca, Sylvia Ratnasamy, Jerry Zhao, Cheng Tien Ee, David Culler, Scott Shenker, and Ion Stoica. "Beacon vector routing: Scalable point-to-point routing in wireless sensor nets," In Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 2005), May 2005.
[23]Charles Perkins and P. Bhagwat "Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers," In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM'94 Conference,pp 234-244, August 1994.
[24]M. Mauve, J¨org Widmer, and Hannes Hartenstein. "A survey on position-based routing in mobile ad hoc networks," IEEE Network Magazines, 15(6), November 2001
[25]David B Johnson and David A Maltz, "Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks," In Mobile Computing, volume 353, 1996
[26]Charles Perkins,"Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing," In Proceedings of IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM '97), November 1997.
[27]Zygmunt J. Haas, "A routing protocol for the reconfigurable wireless networks," In IEEE International Conference on Universal Personal Communications (ICUPC'97), volume 2,pages 562.566, 1997.
[28]Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Hari Balakrishnan,"Energy Ef´Čücient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks," In Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 2000.