Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface aided Indoor and Outdoor User Distribution in Heterogeneous Network

Full Text (PDF, 560KB), PP.89-97

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Yamuna Devi M M 1,* Amalorpava Mary Rajee S 2 Ahila A 2 Indira N R 2

1. KL Deemed to be University/Department of Computer Science and Engineering, 522 502, Andhra Pradesh, India

2. Sethu Institute of Technology/Department of Electronics and Communication, Virudhunagar District, 626 115, India

* Corresponding author.


Received: 21 Oct. 2021 / Revised: 29 Nov. 2021 / Accepted: 23 Dec. 2021 / Published: 8 Aug. 2022

Index Terms

Heterogeneous network, Millimeter wave, Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces, Blockage


Millimeter wave communication suffers from static blockages such as trees, buildings and so on. Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RISs) has been adapted to solve this blockage problem and enable the urban environment user to choose mmW enabled small cells as their source transmitter or to choose macro cells in case of non-line of sight exists. RIS is a promising network technology to improve the quality of service parameters such as spectral efficiency and energy efficiency by artificially reconfiguring the propagation environment of electromagnetic waves. An indoor user can be connected with mmW band if the line of sight (LOS) link exists. Otherwise, the system utilizes RIS transmission model to have reliable and low-latency communication. It reflects the capability of RISs to enable enhanced communications in challenging environments. An optimization problem is formulated to maximize the sum data rate of an indoor user by phase shift optimization at the RIS. The outage probability of the proposed scheme is analyzed under Rician fading channel. The proposed RIS enabled method targets to enhance the overall performance in terms of average spectral efficiency and achievable data rate in the presence of blockages and system imperfections. The data rate is increased by three fold times than that of the transmission without RIS. The utility of this framework is discussed for both indoor and outdoor environments.

Cite This Paper

Yamuna Devi M M, Amalorpava Mary Rajee S, Ahila A, Indira N R, "Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface aided Indoor and Outdoor User Distribution in Heterogeneous Network", International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security(IJCNIS), Vol.14, No.4, pp.89-97, 2022. DOI:10.5815/ijcnis.2022.04.07


[1]Ibrahim, Yildirim., Ali, Uyrus., Ertugrul, Basar.:"Modeling and Analysis of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces for Indoor and Outdoor Applications in Future Wireless Networks" arXiv:1912.07350, Aug. 2020.
[2]Karjalainen, N., Nekovee, M., Benn, H., et al.: "Challenges and opportunities of mm-wave communication in 5g networks", In: Proc. Intl. Conf. Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CROWNCOM), June 2014, pp. 372–376
[3]Amalorpava Mary Rajee, S., Merline, A.: "Machine Intelligence Technique for Blockage effects in Next-Generation Heterogeneous Network", 2020, Radioengineering.,29, (3), pp.555-562
[4]Bai, T., Heath, R.W.: "Coverage and rate analysis for millimeter-wave cellular networks", 2015, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., 14, (2), pp. 1100–1114
[5]K. Ntontin, M. Di Renzo, et al.: "Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces vs.relaying: Differences, similarities, and performance comparison", Aug. 2019. [Online]. Available: arXiv:1908.08747
[6]Huayan Guo, Ying-Chang Liang, Jie Chen, Erik G. Larsson.: "Weighted Sum-Rate Maximization for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface Aided Wireless Networks", Dec 2019, arXiv:1912.11999v1 [eess.SP]
[7]Linglong, Da.,, Bichai, Wang., Shenheng, xu., et al.:” Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface-Based Wireless ommunications: Antenna Design, Prototyping, and Experimental Results” Mar 2020, IEEE Access,
[8]L. Jiao, P. Wang, A. Alipour-Fanid, H. Zeng and K. Zeng, "Enabling Efficient Blockage-Aware Handover in RIS-Assisted mmWave Cellular Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, doi: 10.1109/TWC.2021.3110522.
[9]C. Liaskoset al., "Using any Surface to Realize a New Paradigm for Wireless Communications",Commun. ACM, June 2018.
[10]E. Basaret al., "Wireless Communications Through Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces", IEEE Access, Sep. 2019.
[11]Ahmed k. Daraj, Alhamzah T. Mohammad, Mahmood F. Mosleh, "Indoor Localization Enhancement Based on Time of Arrival Using Sectoring Method", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, Vol.12, No.3, pp.1-7, 2020.
[12]Amalorpava Mary Rajee, S., Merline, A.: "Performance analysis of flexible indoor and outdoor user distribution in multi-tier heterogeneous network", 2021, International Journal of Mobile Communications.,1, (1), DOI:10.1504/ijmc.2022.10040256(In Press)
[13]"Large intelligent surfaces for energy efficiency in wireless communication", arXiv:1810.06934, Oct. 2018. [Online]. Available:
[14]Q. Wu and R. Zhang, "Intelligent reflecting surface enhanced wireless network: Joint active and passive beamforming design", in Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf., Abu Dhabi, UAE, Dec. 2018.
[15]C. Huang, A. Zappone, G. C. Alexandropoulos, M. Debbah, and C. Yuen, "Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces for energy efficiency in wireless communication", IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Aug. 2019.
[16]J. Zuo, Liu E. Basar, et al.: "Intelligent Reflecting surface Enhanced Millimeter-Wave NOMA system", IEEE Commun. Lett., June 2020.
[17]X. Yuan, Y.-J. A. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Yan, and H. Liu. "Reconfigurable-Intelligent-Surface Empowered Wireless Communications: Challenges and Opportunities". arXiv preprint arXiv:2001.00364. [[ArXiv Link](]
[18]Ozdogan, O., Björnson E., Larsson,E.G.: "Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces: Physics, Propagation, and Pathloss Modeling," in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 581-585, May 2020, doi: 10.1109/LWC.2019.2960779.
[19]Imran Khan," Efficient Low-Overhead Channel Estimation for 5G Lens Based Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO Systems", International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 42-57, 2018.
[20]M. Di Renzo et al., "Smart radio environments empowered by reconfigurable AI meta-surfaces: An idea whose time has come", EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Net., vol. 2019, p. 129, May 2019.