A Cross-Layer Design and Fuzzy Logic based Stability Oriented Routing Protocol

Full Text (PDF, 1132KB), PP.54-66

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Surabhi Patel 1,* Heman Pathak 1

1. Gurukula Kangri (Deemed to be University)/CS/ Haridwar, Uttarakhand, Indi

* Corresponding author.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2022.02.05

Received: 25 Jun. 2021 / Revised: 14 Sep. 2021 / Accepted: 16 Oct. 2021 / Published: 8 Apr. 2022

Index Terms

Ad-Hoc Networks, MANET, Cross-Layer Design, Fuzzy Logic, Stable Route


Ad-hoc networks in which nodes are mobile as well as communicate via wireless links fall under the category of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs). Evasive mobility and the limited battery life of MANET nodes make routing a difficult problem. Most of the conventional routing protocols recommend the shortest path without considering route stability into account. A Cross-Layer Design and Fuzzy Logic based Stability Oriented (CLDFL-SO) routing protocol is proposed in this research, which offers a  solution for stable route formation by eliminating unstable links and low-quality nodes. Cross-layer interaction parameter based link residual lifetime calculation is used to assess the link's stability. The fuzzy logic is being used to evaluate the node quality by providing node metrics like node speed, residual energy and node degree. The simulations illustrate the efficacy of the suggested protocol in comparison to the popular Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol. 

Cite This Paper

Surabhi Patel, Heman Pathak, "A Cross-Layer Design and Fuzzy Logic based Stability Oriented Routing Protocol", International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security(IJCNIS), Vol.14, No.2, pp.54-66, 2022. DOI: 10.5815/ijcnis.2022.02.05


[1] Kumar M, Mishra R.,“An overview of MANET: History, challenges and applications”,Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE),Vol.3, No.1, 2012, pp121-125.

[2] Raja L, Baboo SS.,“An overview of MANET: Applications, attacks and challenges”, International journal of computer science and mobile computing, Vol.3, No.1, 2014, pp408-17.

[3] Corson, Scott, and Joseph Macker.,“RFC2501: Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET): Routing protocol performance issues and evaluation considerations”, 1999.

[4] Perkins, Charles, Elizabeth Belding-Royer, and Samir Das.,“RFC3561: Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing”, 2003.

[5] Perkins CE, Bhagwat P.,“Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers”,ACM SIGCOMM computer communication review, Vol.24, No.4, 1994, pp234-44.

[6] Pearlman MR, Haas ZJ.,“Determining the optimal configuration for the zone routing protocol”,IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol.17, No.8, 1999, pp1395-414.

[7] Bettstetter C.,“On the minimum node degree and connectivity of a wireless multihop network”, InProceedings of the 3rd ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing, 2002, pp. 80-91.

[8] Shakkottai S, Rappaport TS, Karlsson PC.,“Cross-layer design for wireless networks”, IEEE Communications magazine, Vol.41, No.10, 2003, pp74-80.

[9] Santhi G, Nachiappan A.,“Fuzzy-cost based multiconstrained QoS routing with mobility prediction in MANETs”,Egyptian informatics journal, Vol.13, No.1, 2012, pp19-25.

[10] Daniel SS.,“An efficient routing protocol under noisy environment for mobile ad hoc networks using fuzzy logic”,International Journal of Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence, Vol.2, No.9, 2013.

[11] Varun Kumar Sharma, Lal Pratap Verma, Mahesh Kumar, "A Fuzzy-based Adaptive Energy Efficient Load Distribution Scheme in Ad-hoc Networks", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, Vol.10, No.2, pp.72-84, 2018.

[12] Singhal A, Daniel AK.,“Fuzzy logic based stable on-demand multipath routing protocol for mobile Ad hoc network”,In Fourth International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies, 2014, pp421-426.

[13] Alaybeyoglu A.,“A distributed fuzzy logic-based root selection algorithm for wireless sensor networks”, Computers & Electrical Engineering, Vol.41, 2015, pp216-25.

[14] Abbas NI, Ilkan M, Ozen E., “Fuzzy approach to improving route stability of the AODV routing protocol”, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol.1, No.1, 2015, pp1-11.

[15] Tabatabaei S, Hosseini F.,“A fuzzy logic-based fault tolerance new routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks”,International Journal of Fuzzy Systems, Vol.18, No.5, 2016, pp883-93.

[16] Sujata V. Mallapur, Siddarama R Patil,"Fuzzy Logic Based Trusted Candidate Selection for Stable Multipath Routing", International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science, vol.7, no.6, pp.12-21, 2015.

[17] Anuradha M, Mala GA., “Cross-layer based congestion detection and routing protocol using fuzzy logic for MANET”, Wireless Networks, Vol.23, No.5, 2017, pp1373-85.

[18] Yadav AK, Das SK, Tripathi S., “EFMMRP: Design of efficient fuzzy based multi-constraint multicast routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc network”, Computer Networks, Vol.118, 2017, pp15-23.

[19] Garg MK, Singh N, Verma P., “Fuzzy rule-based approach for design and analysis of a trust-based secure routing protocol for MANETs”, Procedia computer science, Vol.132, 2018, pp653-8.

[20] Sarao P., “F-EEAODV: Fuzzy based energy efficient reactive routing protocol in wireless ad-hoc networks”, Journal of Communications, Vol.13, No.7, 2018, pp350-6.

[21] Helen D, Arivazhagan D., “A stable routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc network using fuzzy logic system”, International Journal of Advanced Intelligence Paradigms, Vol.14, No.3-4, 2019, pp248-59.

[22] Verma VR, Sharma DP, Lamba CS.,“Improvement in QoS of MANET Routing by finding optimal route using Mobile Agent paradigm and Intelligent Routing Decision using Fuzzy Logic Approach”, In International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies (GUCON), 2019, pp725-730.

[23] Fareena N, Kumari SS., “A distributed fuzzy multicast routing protocol (DFMCRP) for maximizing the network lifetime in mobile ad-hoc networks”, Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, Vol.12, No.5, 2021, pp4967-78.

[24] Sudhakar T, InbaraniHH.,“FM—MANETs: A Novel Fuzzy Mobility on Multi-path Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks for Route Selection”, In Advances in Distributed Computing and Machine Learning, Springer, 2021, pp15-24.

[25] Pallai GK, Sankaran M, Rath AK.,“A Stable Path-Based Cross-Layer Approach Utilizing Neighbours RSS Knowledge in MANET”, Advances in Intelligent Computing and CommunicationSpringer, 2021, pp505-513.

[26] Krishna S.R.M., Seeta Ramanath M.N., Kamakshi Prasad V.,"Optimal Reliable Routing Path Selection in MANET through Novel Approach in GA", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, Vol.9, No.2, pp.35-41, 2017.

[27] Doss R, Pan L., “A case for cross layer design: The impact of physical layer properties on routing protocol performance in manets”, Australian Telecommuncation Networks and Applications Conference, 2006, pp409-413.

[28] Goff T, Abu-Ghazaleh N, Phatak D, Kahvecioglu R, “Preemptive routing in ad hoc networks”, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vol.63, No.2, 2003, pp123-40.

[29] Patel S, Pathak H, “A regression-based technique for link failure time prediction in MANET”, International Journal of High Performance Computing and Networking, Vol.16, No.2-3, 2020, pp95-101.

[30] Friis HT., “A note on a simple transmission formula”, Proceedings of the IRE, Vol.34, No.5, 1946, pp254-6.

[31] Kaye GR.,“Indian mathematics”,Isis, Vol.2, No.2, 1919, pp326-56.

[32] Vasilakos A, Ricudis C, Anagnostakis K, Pedryca W, Pitsillides A.,“Evolutionary-fuzzy prediction for strategic QoS routing in broadband networks”, In IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems Proceedings. IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence, Vol. 2, 1998, pp1488-1493.

[33] Sivanandam SN, Sumathi S, Deepa SN., “Introduction to fuzzy logic using MATLAB”, Berlin: Springer,Vol.1, 2007.

[34] Nurcahyo GW, Shamsuddin SM, Alias RA, Noor Md Sap M.,“Selection of defuzzification method to obtain crisp value for representing uncertain data in a modified sweep algorithm”, Journal of Computer Science & Technology, Vol.3, 2003.

[35] Issariyakul T, Hossain E.,“Introduction to network simulator 2 (NS2)”, InIntroduction to network simulator NS2, Springer, 2009, pp. 1-18.

[36] Janert PK.,“Gnuplot in action: understanding data with graphs”,Simon and Schuster, 2016.