International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies(IJWMT)

ISSN: 2076-1449 (Print), ISSN: 2076-9539 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJWMT Vol.5, No.2, Apr. 2015

Intelligent and Distributed Localization of Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

Full Text (PDF, 331KB), PP.22-36

Views:52   Downloads:2


Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba, Amina Y. Al-Salluta

Index Terms

Wireless sensor networks;Localization, Anchor nodes;Self organizing maps


In wireless sensor networks, the issue of nodes localization has taken a wide area of research. Most applications need to know the position of sensor nodes for reasons of optimal and fast data routing. In this paper, a new distributed localization algorithm based on Self Organizing Maps (SOMs) is proposed to determine the location of a node in a wireless sensor network.
The proposed algorithm is classified as a range-free algorithm which uses only the connectivity information between nodes without the need to measure the time of arrival or signal strength as range-based algorithms require. It utilizes the neighborhood information and the well-known anchors' positions to calculate the estimated locations of nodes. Our algorithm is made up of two main stages. The initial estimated locations of nodes are calculated in the initialization stage, and fed to the learning stage in which a SOM is used to calculate the final estimated locations of nodes.
By using the neighborhood information at the first stage, the algorithm has significantly reduced the SOM learning time and the number of iterations to converge. On the other hand, starting with real data rather than random data maximized the accuracy of the resulted locations. Furthermore, the distributed implementation of the algorithm highly alleviated the pressure on the wireless nodes which are characterized with low power and limited capabilities.
The proposed algorithm has been implemented using MATLAB software and experimented by deploying different number of nodes in a specific area with different communication radio ranges. Extensive simulations evidently verified the performance of the algorithm and achieved a very good accuracy. Moreover, the algorithm proved its effectiveness with a lower average error and lower number of iterations compared to other related algorithms.

Cite This Paper

Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba, Amina Y. Al-Salluta,"Intelligent and Distributed Localization of Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks", IJWMT, vol.5, no.2, pp.22-36, 2015.DOI: 10.5815/ijwmt.2015.02.03


[1]K. Delin, "The Sensor Web: A Macro-Instrument for Coordinated Sensing", Sensors, vol. 2, pp. 270-285, July 2002.

[2]J. Yick, B. Mukherjee, and D. Ghosal, "Wireless sensor network survey", Computer Networks, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2292-2330, April 2008.

[3]B. Karp and H. Kung, "GPSR: greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks", in Mobile computing and networking conference, Boston, MA, USA, 2000, pp. 243-254.

[4]M. Hefeeda and M. Bagheri, "Wireless sensor networks for early detection of forest fires", in IEEE International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, Pisa, 2008, pp. 1-6. 

[5]S. Pace, G. Frost, I. Lachow, D. Frelinger, D. Fossum, D. K. Wassem, and M. Pinto, "GPS history chronology and budgets", in The global positioning system, Santa Monica, RAND Corporation, 1995, Appendix B.

[6]S. Pandey and P. Agrawal, "A Survey on Localization Techniques for Wireless Networks", Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1125-1148, 2006.

[7]L. Mo, and L. Yunhao: Rendered path, "Range-free localization in anisotropic sensor networks with holes", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 320-332, 2010.

[8]Zhetao Li, Renfa Li, Yehua Wei, and Tingrui Pei, "Survey of Localization Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks", Information Technology Journal, vol. 9, pp. 1754-1757, Sep. 2010.

[9]P. Juang, H. Oki, Y. Wang, M. Martonosi, and L. S. Peh, "Energy-efficient computing for wildlife tracking: Design tradeoffs and early experiences with ZebraNet", ACM, vol. 37, pp. 96-107, 2002.

[10]L. Yihan, S. S. Panwar, M. Shiwen, S. Burugupalli, and L. Jong Ha, "A mobile ad hoc biosensor network", in IEEE International Conference on Communications, NY, USA, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1241-1245.

[11]R. Peng and M. L. Sichitiu, "Localization of wireless sensor networks with a mobile beacon", in IEEE Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems, NC, USA, 2004, pp. 174-183.

[12]R. Poovendran, C. L.Wang, and S. Roy, "Secure Localization and Time Synchronization for Wireless Sensor and Ad Hoc Networks", Springer, 2007.

[13]B. H. Wellenhoff, H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collins, "Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice", 5th edition, Springer, 2001.

[14]A. Savvides, C. C. Han, and M. B. Strivastava, "Dynamic finegrained localization in ad-hoc networks of sensors", in Mobile Computing and Networking conference, New York, NY, USA, 2001, pp. 225-246.

[15]D. Niculescu and B. Nath, "Ad hoc positioning system (APS) using AOA", IEEE Computer, vol. 3, pp. 1734-1743, April 2003.

[16]N. Patwari, A. O. Hero III, M. Perkins, N. S. Correal, and R. J. O'Dea, "Relative location estimation in wireless sensor networks", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, pp. 2137-2148, Aug. 2003.

[17]Nalini Vasudevan, "Node Localization in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks", R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore, Tech. Rep. 52, June 2005.

[18]R. Want, A. Hopper, V. Falc?ao, and J. Gibbons, "The active badge location system", Cambridge University, Technical Report 92.1, 1992.

[19]N. Priyantha, "Providing precise indoor location information to mobile devices", M.S. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, 2001.

[20]A. Ward, A. Jones, and A. Hopper, "A new location technique for the active office", IEEE Personnel Communications, vol. 4, pp. 42-47, Oct. 1997.

[21]A. Harter, A. Hopper, P. Steggles, A. Ward, P. Webster, "The anatomy of a context-aware application"., in Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, New York, NY, USA, 1999, pp. 798-815.

[22]A. Smith, H. Balakrishnan, M. Goraczko, and N. Priyantha, "Tracking moving devices with the cricket location system", in ACM conference on Mobile systems, New York, NY, USA, 2004.

[23]D. Moore, J. Leonard, D. Rus, and S. Teller, "Robust distributed network localization with noisy range measurements", ACM Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, New York, NY, USA, 2004.

[24]Greg Welch, Gary Bishop, Leandra Vicci, Stephen Brumback, Kurtis Keller, and D'nardo Colucci, "High-performance wide-area optical tracking', Teleoper. Virtual Environ, vol. 10, pp. 1-21, Feb. 2001.

[25]C. Alippi, A. Mottarella, and G. Vanini, "A RF map-based localization algorithm for indoor environments", IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 1, pp. 652-655, May 2005.

[26]J. Hightower, G. Borriello, and R. Want. SpotON, "An indoor 3D location sensing technology based on RF signal strength", CSE, Technical Report, 2000.

[27]K. Lorincz and M. Welsh, "A robust decentralized approach to RF-based location tracking", Technical Report TR-04-04, 2004.

[28]L. M. Ni, Y. Liu, Y. C. Lau, and A. P. Patil Landmarc, "Indoor location sensing using active RFID", in IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, 2003, pp. 407-415.

[29]F. Dellaert, D. Fox, W. Burgard, and S. Thrun, "Monte Carlo Localization for Mobile Robots", IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1999, vol. 2, pp. 1322-1328.

[30]L. Hu and D. Evans, "Localization for mobile sensor networks", International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, USA, 2004, pp. 1167-1180.

[31]A. Baggio and K. Langendoen, "Monte Carlo localization for mobile wireless sensor networks", Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 6, pp. 718-733, July 2007.

[32]N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, "GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices", IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, vol. 7, pp. 28-34, Oct. 2000. 

[33]D. Niculescu and B. Nath, "DV Based Positioning in Ad Hoc Networks", Journal of Telecommunication Systems, vol. 22, pp. 267-280, 2003.

[34]R. Nagpal, H. Shrobe, and J. Bachrach, "Organizing a global coordinate system from local information on an ad hoc sensor network", In Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Information processing in sensor networks (IPSN'03), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2003, pp. 333-348.

[35]D. Nicolescu and B. Nath, "Ad-hoc positioning systems (APS)," in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, San Antonio, USA, 2001, vol. 5, pp. 2926-2931.

[36]Y. Shang, W. Ruml, Y. Zhang, and M. Fromherz, "Localization from connectivity in sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 15, pp. 961-974, 2004.

[37]S. K. Chenna, Y. Kr. Jain, H. Kapoor, R. S. Bapi, N. Yadaiah, A. Negi, V. Seshagiri Rao, and B. L. Deekshatulu, "State estimation and tracking problems: A comparison between Kalman filter and recurrent neural networks", International Conference on Neural Information Processing, Berlin, 2004, pp. 275-281.

[38]A. Shareef, Yifeng Zhu, Mohamad Musavi, and Bingxin Shen, "Comparison of MLP Neural Networks and Kalman Filter for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proceedings of 19th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems, November, 2007, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 323-330.

[39]D. A. Tran and T. Nguyen, "Localization in wireless sensor networks based on support vector machines", IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 7, pp. 1278-1290, 2008.

[40]T. Kohonen, "Self-organized formation of topologically correct feature maps", Biological Cybernetics, vol. 43, pp. 59-69, 1982.

[41]S. Haykin, "Neural Networks", Prentice Hall, 2nd edition, 1998.

[42]T. Kohonen, "Self-Organizing Maps", Springer, 3rd edition, 2001.

[43]J. Janet, R. Gutierrez, T. Chase, M. White, and J. Sutton., "Autonomous mobile robot global self-localization using Kohonen and region-feature neural networks", Journal of Robotic Systems, vol. 3, pp. 504-509, 1997.

[44]U. Gerecke and N. Sharkey, "Quick and dirty localization for a lost robot: Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation", IEEE International Symposium, 1999, vol. 2, pp. 15-26.

[45]G. Giorgetti, S. K. S. Gupta, and G. Manes, "Wireless localization using self-organizing maps", In Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Information processing in sensor networks (IPSN '07), ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2007, pp. 293-302.

[46]S. Asakura, D. Umehara, and M. Kawai, "Distributed location estimation method for mobile terminals based on SOM algorithm", IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. 85, pp. 1042-1050, 2002.

[47]J. Hu and G. Lee, "Distributed localization of wireless sensor networks using self-organizing maps", IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems, Aug. 2008, pp. 284-289.

[48]J. Sum, C. S. Leung, L.W. Chan, and L. Xu, "Yet another algorithm which can generate topograph map," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 6, pp. 548-559, 1997.

[49]J. A. Janet, R. Gutierrez, T. A. Chase, M. W. White, and J. C. Sutton III, "Autonomous mobile robot global self-localization using Kohonen and region-feature neural networks", Journal of Robotic Systems, vol.14, pp. 263-282, 1997.

[50]E. Ertin and K. L. Priddy, "Self-localization of wireless sensor networks using self organizing maps", Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications III, vol. 5803, pp. 138-145, March 2005.

[51]Xinwei Wang, Ole Bischoff, Rainer Laur, and Steffen Paul, "Localization in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks using Multilateration with RSSI for Logistic Applications", Proceedings of the Eurosensors XXIII conference, 2009, pp. 461-464.

[52]Yi Shang, Hongchi Shi, A. A. Ahmed, "Performance study of localization methods for ad-hoc sensor networks", Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems, IEEE International Conference, Oct. 2004, pp. 184-193.

[53]Mehdi Vojdani and Mehdi Dehghan, "Localization in Anchor Less Wireless Sensor Network", International Association of Computer Science & Information Technology (IACSIT), vol. 2, Jan. 2012.

[54]Zhiheng Xie, Mingyi Hong, Hengchang Liu, Jingyuan Li, Kangyuan Zhu, and John Stankovic, "Quantitative uncertainty-based incremental localization and anchor selection in wireless sensor networks", In Proceedings of the 14th ACM international conference on Modeling, analysis and simulation of wireless and mobile systems (MSWiM '11), ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011, pp. 417-426.

[55]G. Han, J. Jiang, L. Shu, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, "Localization Algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey", Sensors, Vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 2026-2061, 2012.