Attacks on Cyber Physical System: Comprehensive Review and Challenges

Full Text (PDF, 805KB), PP.53-73

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Maloth Sagar 1,* Vanmathi C. 1

1. Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT UNIVERSITY), Vellore, TamilNadu, India-632014

* Corresponding author.


Received: 8 Apr. 2022 / Revised: 2 May 2022 / Accepted: 25 May 2022 / Published: 8 Oct. 2022

Index Terms

Cyber-Physical System Security, Attack types, Performance analysis, DOS, Smart Grids, Intrusion Detection, Threats, vulnerabilities.


CPS is often comprised of several networked systems that could really observe as well as modify real-world objects and operations. They're analogous with IoT systems, and that therefore CPS concentrates mostly on interplay of mechanical, communications, as well as compute operations. As a result of their connection with IoT, a truly innovative CPS element, the “Internet of Cyber-Physical Things (IoCPT)”, has been established. The speedy pace and substantial development of CPS does have a consequence upon several parts of people's lives and permits a plethora of services and applications, including such e-Health, home automation, and e-Commerce. Interlinking the physical and virtual realms, on the other hand, poses additional security risks. As a necessary consequence, CPS cyber-security increasingly piqued the interest of both academics as well as corporations. In this research work, a literature review has been undergone in terms of cyber security in cyber physical systems. All the literature papers on cyber security have been collected from standard journals like IEEE, Springer and Elsevier. The collected papers are analyzed in diverse aspects like application, dataset used, technique utilized, tool and performance recorded. Finally, the research gaps identified is manifested to guide the future researchers on intrusion detection in CPS.

Cite This Paper

Maloth Sagar, Vanmathi C., " Attacks on Cyber Physical System: Comprehensive Review and Challenges", International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies(IJWMT), Vol.12, No.5, pp. 53-73, 2022. DOI:10.5815/ijwmt.2022.05.06


[1]C. Vellaithurai, A. Srivastava, S. Zonouz and R. Berthier, "CPIndex: Cyber-Physical Vulnerability Assessment for Power-Grid Infrastructures," in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid,2015vol.6,no.2,pp. 566-575,.doi: 10.1109/TSG.2014.2372315

[2]G. Bernieri, M. Conti and F. Pascucci, "A Novel Architecture for Cyber-Physical Security in Industrial Control Networks," 2018 IEEE 4th International Forum on Research and Technology for Society and Industry (RTSI), Palermo, Italy, 2018, pp. 1-6. DOI: 10.1109/RTSI.2018.8548438

[3]P. Haller and B. Genge, "Using Sensitivity Analysis and Cross-Association for the Design of Intrusion Detection Systems in Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems," in IEEE Access, vol. 5,pp.9336-9347,2017.doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2703906

[4]A. Bezemskij, G. Loukas, D. Gan and R. J. Anthony, "Detecting Cyber-Physical Threats in an Autonomous Robotic Vehicle Using Bayesian Networks," 2017 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData), Exeter, UK, 2017, pp. 98-103.

[5]Y. Xiao, J. Liu and L. Zhang, "Cyber-Physical System Intrusion Detection Model Based on Software-Defined Network," 2021 IEEE 12th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS), Beijing, China, 2021, pp. 170-173.doi: 10.1109/ICSESS52187.2021.9522345

[6]K. Heussen, E. Tyge and A. M. Kosek, "Residential demand response behaviour modelling applied to cyber-physical intrusion detection," 2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech, Manchester, UK,2017, pp.1-6.doi: 10.1109/PTC.2017.7981209

[7]A. Chavez et al., "Hybrid Intrusion Detection System Design for Distributed Energy Resource Systems," 2019 IEEE CyberPELS (CyberPELS), Knoxville, TN, USA, 2019, pp. 1-6.DOI: 10.1109/CyberPELS.2019.8925064

[8]R. Mitchell and I. -R. Chen, "Effect of Intrusion Detection and Response on Reliability of Cyber-Physical Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 199-210, March,2013.doi: 10.1109/TR.2013.2240891

[9]R. Mitchell and I. Chen, "Modeling and Analysis of Attacks and Counter Defense Mechanisms for Cyber-Physical Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol. 65, no.1,pp.350-358,March2016,DOI: 10.1109/TR.2015.2406860

[10]W. Schneble and G. Thamilarasu, "Optimal Feature Selection for Intrusion Detection in Medical Cyber-Physical Systems," 2019 11th International Conference on Advanced Computing(ICoAC),Chennai,India,2019,pp.238243,doi:10.1109/ICoAC48765.2019.246846 

[11]G. Loukas, T. Vuong, R. Heartfield, G. Sakellari, Y. Yoon and D. Gan, "Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Intrusion Detection for Vehicles Using Deep Learning," in IEEE Access, vol.6, pp. 3491-3508,2018, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2782159

[12]X. Zhang, X. Cai, C. Wang, K. Han and S. Zhang, "A Dynamic Security Control Architecture for Industrial Cyber-Physical System," 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Internet (ICII), Orlando, FL, USA, 2019, pp. 148-151.  DOI: 10.1109/ICII.2019.00038

[13]C. Roberts et al., "Learning Behavior of Distribution System Discrete Control Devices for Cyber-Physical Security," in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 749-761,Jan.2020,DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2019.2936016

[14]R. Pinto, G. Gonçalves, E. Tovar and J. Delsing, "Attack Detection in Cyber-Physical Production Systems using the Deterministic Dendritic Cell Algorithm," 2020 25th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Vienna, Austria,2020, pp. 1552-1559, DOI: 10.1109/ETFA46521.2020.9212021

[15]A. Valdes, R. Macwan and M. Backes, "Anomaly Detection in Electrical Substation Circuits via Unsupervised Machine Learning," 2016 IEEE 17th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI), Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2016, pp. 500-505. doi: 10.1109/IRI.2016.74

[16]Maha M. Althobaiti, K. Pradeep Mohan Kumar, Romany F. Mansour, "An intelligent cognitive computing-based intrusion detection for industrial cyber-physical systems", Measurement, 2021

[17]Maryam Raiyat Aliabadi, Margo Seltzer, Ramak Ghavamizadeh, "ARTINALI#: An Efficient Intrusion Detection Technique for Resource-Constrained Cyber-Physical Systems", International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 2021

[18]Soumyadeep Thakur, Anuran Chakraborty, Ram Sarkar, "Intrusion detection in cyber-physical systems using a generic and domain-specific deep autoencoder model", Computers & Electrical Engineering, 2021

[19]Yunfeng Li, Wenli Xue, Yang He, "Intrusion detection of a cyber-physical energy system based on multivariate ensemble classification", Energy, 2020

[20]Jinping Liu, Wuxia Zhang, Jean-Paul Niyoyita, "Toward security monitoring of industrial Cyber-Physical systems via hierarchically distributed intrusion detection", Expert Systems with Applications, 2020

[21]Abdullah Khalili, Ashkan Sami, Saber Pouresmaeeli, "SIDS: State-based intrusion detection for stage-based cyber-physical systems", International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 2018

[22]Mohamed Attia, Sidi Mohammed Senouci, Daniela Chrenko, "An efficient Intrusion Detection System against cyber-physical attacks in the smart grid", Computers & Electrical Engineering, 2018

[23]Shuyang Ma, Yan Li, Tao Xu, "Programmable intrusion detection for distributed energy resources in cyber-physical networked microgrids", Applied Energy, 2021

[24]Ayei E. Ibor, Olusoji B. Okunoye, Khadeejah A. Abdulsalam, "Novel Hybrid Model for Intrusion Prediction on Cyber-Physical Systems’ Communication Networks based on Bio-inspired Deep Neural Network Structure", Journal of Information Security and Applications, 2022

[25]Sujeet S. Jagtap, Shankar Sriram V. S., Subramaniyaswamy V., "A hypergraph based Kohonen map for detecting intrusions over cyber-physical systems traffic", Future Generation Computer Systems, 2021

[26]Qingyu Su, Zhongxin Fan, Yue Long, Jian Li, "Attack detection and secure state estimation for cyber-physical systems with finite-frequency observers", Journal of the Franklin Institute, 2020

[27]Jiao Qin ¬ Maiying Zhong ¬ Yang Liu ¬ Xianghua Wang ¬ Donghua Zhou ¬,¬¬"Covert attack detection based on hi/ho Optimization for Cyber-Physical Systems based on Optimization for Cyber-Physical Systems ", IFAC, 2020

[28]Chongrong Fang, Yifei Qi, Peng Cheng, Wei Xing Zheng, "Optimal periodic watermarking schedule for replay attack detection in cyber-physical systems", Automatica, 2020

[29]Helem Sabina Sánchez, Damiano Rotondo, Teresa Escobet, VicençPuig, Jordi Saludes, Joseba Quevedo, "Detection of replay attacks in cyber-physical systems using a frequency-based signature", Journal of the Franklin Institute, 2019

[30]Dan Ye, Tian-Yu Zhang, Ge Guo, "Stochastic coding detection scheme in cyber-physical systems against replay attack", Information Sciences, 2019

[31]Jiyeon Nam¬, Gyunghoon Park ¬ Taekyoo Kim¬and Hyungbo Shim¬, "A Posteriori Detection of Moment of attack on Cyber-physical Systems: A Back-and-forth Observer Approach ¬", IFAC, 2018

[32]Abdulrahman Saad Alqahtani, Khaled Ali Abuhasel, Mohammed Alquraish, "A Novel Decentralized Analytical Methodology for Cyber-Physical Networks Attack Detection", Wireless Personal Communications, 2021

[33]Rasim Alguliyev, Yadigar Imamverdiyev, Lyudmila Sukhostat, "Hybrid DeepGCL model for cyber-attacks detection on cyber-physical systems", Neural Computing and Applications, 2021

[34]Mohammed S. Shafae1 & Lee J. Wells2 & Gregory T. Purdy3, "Defending against product-oriented cyber-physical attacks on machining systems", The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2019

[35]Zhiyan Xu, Debiao He, Pandi Vijayakumar, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Li Li, "Efficient NTRU Lattice-Based Certificateless Signature Scheme for Medical Cyber-Physical Systems", Journal of Medical Systems, 2020

[36]Feng Xia, Linqiang Wang, Daqiang Zhang, Daojing He, Xiangjie Kong, "An adaptive MAC protocol for real-time and reliable communications in medical cyber-physical systems", Telecommun System, 2015

[37]Ahmad Ali AlZubi, Mohammed Al-Maitah, Abdulaziz Alarifi1, "Cyber-attack detection in healthcare using cyber-physical system and machine learning techniques", Soft Computing, 2021

[38]Sukrutha L. T. Vangipuram, Saraju P. Mohanty, Elias Kougianos, "CoviChain: A Blockchain-Based Framework for Nonrepudiable ContactTracing in Healthcare Cyber‑Physical Systems During PandemicOutbreaks", SN Computer Science, 2021

[39]Sandeep K. Sood, Isha Mahajan, "A Fog Assisted Cyber-Physical Framework for Identifying and Preventing Coronary Heart Disease", Wireless Pers Commun, 2018

[40]Amit Kumar Tyagi, S.U. Aswathy, G. Aghila, N. Sreenath, "AARIN: Affordable, accurate, reliable and innovative mechanism to protect a medical cyber-physical system using blockchain technology", International Journal of Intelligent Networks, 2021

[41]Pritam Khan, Yasin Khan, Sudhir Kumar, "Tracking and Stabilization of Heart-rate using Pacemaker with FOF-PID Controller in Secured Medical Cyber-physical System", 12th International Conference on Communication Systems & Networks (COMSNETS), 2020

[42]George Grispos, William Bradley Glisson, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, "Medical Cyber-Physical Systems Development: A Forensics-Driven Approach", 2017 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Connected Health: Applications, Systems and Engineering Technologies (CHASE), 2017

[43]Daniela D’Auria and Fabio Persia, "A Collaborative Robotic Cyber-Physical System for Surgery Applications", 2017 IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI), 2017

[44]Radoslav Ivanov, James Weimer and Insup Lee, "Context-Aware Detection in Medical Cyber-Physical Systems", 2018 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, 2019

[45]L. Guo et al., "Systematic Assessment of Cyber-Physical Security of Energy Management System for Connected and Automated Electric Vehicles," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 3335-3347, May 2021. DOI: 10.1109/TII.2020.3011821

[46]Z. Cheng and M. -Y. Chow, "Resilient Collaborative Distributed Energy Management System Framework for Cyber-Physical DC Microgrids," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 4637-4649, Nov. 2020. DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2020.3001059

[47]A. Humayed, J. Lin, F. Li and B. Luo, "Cyber-Physical Systems Security—A Survey," in IEEEInternetofThingsJournal, vol.4, no.6, pp. 1802-1831, Dec. 2017.DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2017.2703172

[48]F. O. Olowononi, D. B. Rawat and C. Liu, "Resilient Machine Learning for Networked Cyber-Physical Systems: A Survey for Machine Learning Security to Securing Machine Learning for CPS," in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 524-552,Firstquarter2021,doi: 10.1109/COMST.2020.3036778

[49]L. Babun, H. Aksu and A. S. Uluagac, "CPS Device-Class Identification via Behavioral Fingerprinting: From Theory to Practice," in IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 16, pp.2413-2428,2021, DOI: 10.1109/TIFS.2021.3054968

[50]L. Zhao and W. Li, "Co-Design of Dual Security Control and Communication for Nonlinear CPS Under DoS Attack," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 19271-19285, 2020. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2966281

[51]R. Pal and V. Prasanna, "The STREAM Mechanism for CPS Security The Case of the Smart Grid," in IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol.36, no.4, pp. 537-550, April 2017, DOI: 10.1109/TCAD.2016.2565201

[52]A. Burg, A. Chattopadhyay and K. -Y. Lam, "Wireless Communication and Security Issues for Cyber-Physical Systems and the Internet-of-Things," in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.106, no.1, pp.38-60, Jan. 2018,DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2017.2780172

[53]F. Asplund, J. McDermid, R. Oates and J. Roberts, "Rapid Integration of CPS Security and Safety," in IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 111-114, Dec. 2019. doi: 10.1109/LES.2018.2879631

[54]M. A. Jan et al., "Lightweight Mutual Authentication and Privacy-Preservation Scheme for Intelligent Wearable Devices in Industrial-CPS," in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics,vol.17,no.8,pp.5829-5839,Aug.2021,doi: 10.1109/TII.2020.3043802

[55]A. Gu, Z. Yin, C. Cui and Y. Li, "Integrated Functional Safety and Security Diagnosis Mechanism of CPS Based on Blockchain," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 15241-15255, 2020. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2967453

[56]I. Zografopoulos, J. Ospina, X. Liu and C. Konstantinou, "Cyber-Physical Energy SystemsSecurity:ThreatModeling,RiskAssessment,Resources,Metrics,andCaseStudies,"in IEEEAccess, vol.9, pp.29775-29818,2021,doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3058403

[57]M. Amin, F. F. M. El-Sousy, G. A. A. Aziz, K. Gaber and O. A. Mohammed, "CPS Attacks Mitigation Approaches on Power Electronic Systems With Security Challenges for Smart Grid Applications: A Review," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 38571-38601, 2021. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3063229

[58]A. Nourian and S. Madnick, "A Systems Theoretic Approach to the Security Threats in Cyber-Physical Systems Applied to Stuxnet," in IEEE Transactions on Dependable and secure computing, vol. 15, no,1, pp.2-13,1Jan.-Feb.2018, DOI: 10.1109/TDSC.2015.2509994

[59]Z. Yang, W. Yan and Y. Xiang, "On the Security of Compressed Sensing-Based Signal Cryptosystem," in IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 363-371,Sept.2015,DOI: 10.1109/TETC.2014.2372151

[60]Q. Xu, P. Ren, H. Song and Q. Du, "Security-Aware Waveforms for Enhancing Wireless Communications Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems via Multipath Receptions," in IEEEInternetofThingsJournal, vol.4, no.6, pp.1924-1933, Dec.2017, DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2017.2684221

[61]X. Zhou, Z. Yang, M. Ni, H. Lin, M. Li and Y. Tang, "Analysis of the Impact of Combined Information-Physical-Failure on Distribution Network CPS," in IEEE Access, vol.8, pp.44140-44152,2020, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2978113

[62]C. -C. Chan, C. -Z. Yang and C. -F. Fan, "Security Verification for Cyber-Physical Systems Using Model Checking," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 75169-75186, 2021. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3081587

[63]S. H. Bouk, S. H. Ahmed, R. Hussain and Y. Eun, "Named Data Networking’s Intrinsic Cyber-Resilience for Vehicular CPS," in IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 60570-60585, 2018. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2875890

[64]C. Hennebert and J. D. Santos, "Security Protocols and Privacy Issues into 6LoWPAN Stack: A Synthesis," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 384-398, Oct. 2014, DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2014.2359538

[65]A. Alipour-Fanid, M. Dabaghchian, N. Wang, L. Jiao and K. Zeng, "Online-Learning-Based Defense Against Jamming Attacks in Multichannel Wireless CPS," in IEEE Internet of things journal, vol. 8, no.17, pp.13278-13290,1Sept.1,2021,DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3066476

[66]P. Venkitasubramaniam, J. Yao and P. Pradhan, "Information-Theoretic Security in Stochastic Control Systems," in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 1914-1931, Oct.2015,DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2015.2466089

[67]J. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. Li and S. Shi, "An Architecture for IoT-Enabled Smart Transportation Security System: A Geospatial Approach," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol.8, no.8, pp.6205-6213,15April15,2021, DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2020.3041386

[68]W. Yan, L. K. Mestha and M. Abbaszadeh, "Attack Detection for Securing Cyber-Physical Systems," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 8471-8481, Oct. 2019, DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2019.2919635

[69]A. J. Alam Majumder, C. B. Veilleux and J. D. Miller, "A Cyber-Physical System to Detect IoT Security Threats of a Smart Home Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Node," in IEEEAccess, vol. 8, pp.205989-206002,2020, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3037032

[70]A. Chattopadhyay, K. -Y. Lam and Y. Tavva, "Autonomous Vehicle: Security by Design," in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 7015-7029,Nov.2021,DOI: 10.1109/TITS.2020.3000797

[71]Grit Denker, Nikil Dutt, Sharad Mehrotra, Mark-Oliver Stehr, Carolyn Talcott, and Nalini Venkatasubramanian, “Resilient dependable cyber-physical systems: a middleware perspective,” Journal of Internet Services and Applications, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 41-49, 2012. 

[72]Kai Höfig, “A vehicle control platform as safety element out of context,” at HiPEAC Computing Systems Week, Barcelona, Spain, May 15, 2014. Retrieved on October 31, 2014from

[73]“Designed-In Cyber Security for Cyber-Physical Systems,” Workshop Report by the Cyber Security Research Alliance (CSRA) and Co-sponsored with NIST, 2013. Retrieved onSeptember26,2014from

[74]Aja Waseem Anwar and Saqib Ali, “Trust-Based Secure Cyber-Physical Systems,” in Proc. of Workshop Proceedings: Trustworthy Cyber-Physical Systems, Tech Report Series, Computing science, Newcastle Uni., 2012.

[75]Jeremiah Gertler, “U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems,” CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2012. Retrieved on September 26, 2014, from

[76]NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0, NIST Special Publication 1108R2, 2012. Retrieved on September 26, 2014, from

[77]“Cyber-Physical Systems: Situation Analysis of Current Trends, Technologies, and Challenges,” in Proc. of NIST CPS Workshop, 2012. Retrieved on September 26, 2014, from

[78]High Confidence Software and Systems Coordinating Group, “High-confidence medical devices: Cyber-physical systems for 21st-century health care,” A Research and Development Needs Report, NCO/NITRD, 2009. Retrieved on June 25, 2014, from Devices.pdf

[79]Ayan Banerjee, et al., “Ensuring safety, security and sustainability of mission-critical cyber-physical systems,” in Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 100, no. 1, pp.283-299, 2011.

[80]James A. Momoh, “Fundamentals of Analysis and Computation for the Smart Grid,” in Proc. Of IEEEPower and Energy Society General Meeting. pp. 1–5, 2010

[81]Acatech - National Academy of Science and Engineering, “Cyber-Physical Systems Driving force for innovation in mobility, health, energy and production,” Position Paper, December2011.RetrievedonJune25,2014from  Baumstruktur_nach_Website/Acatech/root/de/Publikationen/Stellungnahmen/acatech_POSITION _CPS_Englisch_WEB.pdf

[82]“Strategic R&D Opportunities for 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems,” Report of the Steering Committee for Foundations in Innovation for Cyber-Physical Systems, RetrievedonSeptember26,2014from

[83]Süzen, A. A. (2020). A Risk-Assessment of Cyber Attacks and Defense Strategies in Industry 4.0 Ecosystem. International Journal of Computer Network & Information Security, 12(1).