Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) Based Indoor Positioning for Location-based IoT Applications

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M.W.P Maduranga 1,* Ruvan Abeysekera 1

1. IIC University of Technology, Phnom Penh, 121206, The Kingdom of Cambodia.

* Corresponding author.


Received: 15 Nov. 2021 / Revised: 3 Jan. 2022 / Accepted: 20 Jan. 2022 / Published: 8 Apr. 2022

Index Terms

Indoor Localization, Internet of Things (IoT), Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), Artificial Intelligence (AI)


In the recent development of the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI) plays a significant role in enabling cognitive IoT applications. Among popular IoT applications, location-based services are considered one of the primary applications where the real-time location of a moving object is estimated. In recent works, AI-based techniques have been investigated to the indoor localization problem, showing significant advantages over deterministic and probabilistic algorithms used for indoor localization. This paper presents a feasibility study of using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNN) for indoor localization applications. The signal strength values received from thirteen different BLE ibeacon nodes placed in an indoor environment were trained using a Feed-Forward Neural Network (FFNN). The FFNN was tested under other hyper-parameter conditions. The prediction model provides reasonably good accuracy in classifying the correct zone of 86% when batch size is 100 under the learning rate of 0.01.Hence the FFNN could be used to implement on location-based IoT applications.

Cite This Paper

M.W.P Maduranga, Ruvan Abeysekera, " Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) Based Indoor Positioning for Location-based IoT Applications", International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies(IJWMT), Vol.12, No.2, pp. 33-39, 2022. DOI: 10.5815/ijwmt.2022.02.03


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