IJITCS Vol. 4, No. 3, Apr. 2012
Cover page and Table of Contents: PDF (size: 139KB)
In this paper ‘DWT-SVD’ based Color Image Watermarking technique in YUV color space using Arnold Transform is proposed. The RGB color image is converted into YUV color space. Image is decomposed by 3 level DWT and then SVD is applied. The security is increased with watermark scrambling using Arnold Transform. The watermark is embedded in all Y,U and V color spaces in HL3 region. The decomposition is done with ‘Haar’ which is simple, symmetric and orthogonal wavelet and the direct weighting factor is used in watermark embedding and extraction process is used. PSNR and Normalized Correlations (NC) values are tested for 10 different values of flexing factor. We got maximum PSNR up to 52.3337 for Y channel and average value of NC equal to 0.99 indicating best recovery of watermark. The proposed scheme is non blind and strongly robust to different attacks like compression, scaling, rotation, cropping and Noise addition which is tested with standard database image of size 512x512 and watermark of size 64X64.[...] Read more.
The World Wide Web has immense resources for all kind of people for their specific needs. Searching on the Web using search engines such as Google, Bing, Ask have become an extremely common way of locating information. Searches are factorized by using either term or keyword sequentially or through short sentences. The challenge for the user is to come up with a set of search terms/keywords/sentence which is neither too large (making the search too specific and resulting in many false negatives) nor too small (making the search too general and resulting in many false positives) to get the desired result. No matter, how the user specifies the search query, the results retrieved, organized and presented by the search engines are in terms of millions of linked pages of which many of them might not be useful to the user fully. In fact, the end user never knows that which pages are exactly matching the query and which are not, till one check the pages individually. This task is quite tedious and a kind of drudgery. This is because of lack of refinement and any meaningful classification of search result. Providing the accurate and precise result to the end users has become Holy Grail for the search engines like Google, Bing, Ask etc. There are number of implementations arrived on web in order to provide better result to the users in the form of DuckDuckGo, Yippy, Dogpile etc. This research proposes development of a Meta search engine, called SEReleC that will provide an interface for refining and classifying the search engines’ results so as to narrow down the search results in a sequentially linked manner resulting in drastic reduction of number of pages.[...] Read more.
Wireless communications is a rapidly growing piece of the communications manufacturing, with the potential to provide high-speed high-quality information exchange between the portable devices located anywhere in the world. Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) has emerged recently as a promising candidate for the next generation broad-band mobile networks. Recently, it was found that Slantlet transform (SLT) based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is capable to reduce the Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and the Inter Carrier Interference (ICI), which are caused by the loss of orthogonality between the sub-carriers. SLT-OFDM can support higher spectrum efficiency than Fast Fourier Transform-based OFDM (FFT-OFDM) due to the elimination of the Cyclic Prefix (CP). In this paper, a novel SLT-MC-CDMA transceiver design is presented based on the SLT-OFDM that is used as a basic building block in the design of MC-CDMA transceiver to maintain the orthogonality against the multi-path frequency Selective Fading Channels (SFC). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the significant gain in the performance of the proposed technique. The Bit Error Rate (BER) of SLT-MC-CDMA scheme is compared with FFT-MC-CDMA and tested in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Flat Fading and Selective Fading Channels (SFH). The simulation results confirmed that, the proposed system outperforms the reference one.[...] Read more.
Meditation is a practice of concentrated focus upon the breath in order to still the mind. In this paper we have investigated an algorithm to classify rest and meditation, by processing of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals through the Wavelet and nonlinear methods. For this purpose, two types of EEG time series (before, and during meditation) of 25 healthy women are collected in the meditation clinic in Mashhad. Correlation dimension and Wavelet coefficients at the forth decomposition level of EEG signals in Fz, Cz and Pz are extracted and used as an input of different classifiers. In order to evaluate performance of the classifiers, the classification accuracies and mean square error (MSE) of the classifiers were examined. The results show that the Fisher discriminant and Parzen classifier trained on both composite features obtain higher accuracy than that of the others. The total classification accuracy of the Fisher discriminant and Parzen classifier applying Wavelet coefficients was 85.02% and 84.75%, respectively which is raised to 92.37% in both classifiers using Correlation dimensions.[...] Read more.
In this paper, a DNA based computing model for solving the star coloring problem is proposed. This model shows how to use DNA strands to construct solution space of molecules for the star coloring problem and how to apply the DNA algorithm to solve the star coloring problem using biological operations. The algorithm is highly parallel and has satisfactory fidelity. The time complexity of the algorithm is O (n2), where n is the number of vertices of the graph.[...] Read more.
A MANET is a collection of mobile nodes by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without any network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. The communication within the network is facilitated through a protocol which discovers routes between nodes. The two major classifications of routing protocols are unipath and multipath. In this paper, the performance comparison of widely used on-demand unipath and multipath routing protocols such as AODV and AOMDV is carried out in terms of variation in pause time and network load under RWM in CBR Traffic. These protocols have been selected for simulation due to their edges over other protocols in various aspects.[...] Read more.
The PPM (Pulse Position Modulation) is commonly used in Free Space Optic (FSO) systems owing to its power efficiency, but it shows a rapid decline in spectral efficiency with increase in the power efficiency and moderate data rate. In order to improve these two parameters, we present a modified modulation scheme of the existing PPM, on the basis of PPM, PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation) and PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). This modified version called DAWPPM (Dual Amplitude-Width PPM).
The average power requirements, bandwidth efficiency and normalized data rate are studied after introducing symbol structure. The proposed scheme shows an improvement in terms of data rate and bandwidth efficiency, and when in come to power efficiency it shows lower efficiency compared to PPM. We present theoretical expressions of data rate, spectral efficiency, and normalized power requirements, and we present comparison results to PPM modulation scheme.
A model of dyadic non-cooperative game Γ(H) is discussed in the paper for the set of one and the same players’ strategies. The players make their choice sitting round the table and have the opportunity to coordinate only the meanings of utilities in every situation. Therefore the players’ payoffs are given by 2×2 matrixes. A notion “the equalized situation” in mixed strategies which is at the same time the equilibrium is introduced. The theorem has been proved, which establishes the conditions of existance of an equalized situation in the given game. In the case of the existence algorithm is constructed. If equalized situation doesn’t exist in the game, then there exists the equilibrium situation in the pure strategies and it is possible to find it by analysis of situations. Γ(H) game’s with bimatrix game in case of two players is given. The players’ conditions of optimal mixed strategies existence in game is written. Relevant examples are solved and Γ(H) game’s application for finite amount of players’ is discussed.[...] Read more.