A Proposed Process Model for Requirements Engineering using Delphi Techniques for Prioritisation

Full Text (PDF, 469KB), PP.73-80

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Ishaya P. Gambo 1,* Abimbola H. Soriyan 1 Rhoda N. Ikono 1

1. Obafemi Awolowo University, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

* Corresponding author.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijitcs.2015.01.09

Received: 11 Feb. 2014 / Revised: 21 Jun. 2014 / Accepted: 9 Sep. 2014 / Published: 8 Dec. 2014

Index Terms

Requirement engineering, Prioritization, Delphi, Stakeholders, Software engineering, Requirements


Requirements engineering (RE) addresses the first software development step and lays the foundation for a successful system. Consequently, ability to identify problems and suggestions for improvements in the RE process opens up significant potential for increasing the success of software projects. Since RE process is naturally collaborative in nature, the intensiveness from both knowledge and human perspectives opens up the problem of decision making on requirements that can be facilitated by requirements prioritisation. In this regard, the paper opined the need for requirements prioritization techniques that will help the developers to obtain consensus among stakeholders using a suitable technique. In particular, the paper proposed a RE process model using Delphi technique. The Delphi technique was suggested in this paper to facilitate and enhance the process of requirements prioritisation in a multilevel prioritisation dimension. Therefore, the proposed model on implementation will contribute to the formulation of an interactive framework for requirements prioritisation to produce a requirement ordering which complies with the existing priorities.

Cite This Paper

Ishaya P. Gambo, Abimbola H. Soriyan, Rhoda N. Ikono, "A Proposed Process Model for Requirements Engineering using Delphi Techniques for Prioritisation", International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science(IJITCS), vol.7, no.1, pp.73-80, 2015. DOI:10.5815/ijitcs.2015.01.09


[1]Cheng, B. H., & Atlee, J. M. (2009). Current and future research directions in requirements engineering. In Design Requirements Engineering: A Ten-Year Perspective (pp. 11-43). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

[2]Broy, M. (2006). Requirements engineering as a key to holistic software quality. In Computer and Information Sciences–ISCIS 2006 (pp. 24-34). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

[3]ISO., (2011). International Organisation for Standardization (ISO): ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 29148:2011, Systems and Software engineering – Life cycle processes – Requirements engineering.

[4]Wiegers, K. E. (2009). Software requirements. O'Reilly Media, Inc.

[5]W. Robinson, S. Pawlowski, and V. Volkov, Requirements Interaction Management, ACM Computing Surveys, 35(2):132-190, 2003.

[6]K. E. Weigers, Karl Wiegers Describes 10 Requirements Traps to Avoid, Software Testing and Quality engineering, 2(1):34-40, 2000.

[7]Zave, P. (1997). Classification of research efforts in requirements engineering. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 29(4), 315-321.

[8]Hull, E., Jackson, K., and Dick, J. (2011). Requirements engineering. Springer.

[9]Nuseibeh, B., & Easterbrook, S. (2000, May). Requirements engineering: a roadmap. In Proceedings of the Conference on the Future of Software Engineering (pp. 35-46). ACM. 

[10]Bajaj, P., and Arora, V. (2013). Multi-Person Decision-Making for Requirements Prioritisation using Fuzzy AHP. In ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, vol 38, no. 5, pp. 1-6.

[11]Sommerville I., Sawyer P. and Viller S. (1997) Requirements Process Improvement through the Phased Introduction of Good Practice, Software Process-Improvement and Practice, 3, 19-34.

[12]Kukreja, N. (2013, May). Decision theoretic requirements prioritization: A two-step approach for sliding towards value realization. In Software Engineering (ICSE), 2013 35th International Conference on (pp. 1465-1467). IEEE.

[13]Cheng, B. H., & Atlee, J. M. (2007, May). Research directions in requirements engineering. In 2007 Future of Software Engineering (pp. 285-303). IEEE Computer Society.

[14]El Emam, K., & Madhavji, N. H. (1995, March). A field study of requirements engineering practices in information systems development. In International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, Proceedings of the Second IEEE (pp. 68-80).

[15]Sommerville I. (1996) Software Engineering Fifth Edition, Addison-Wesley.

[16]Schrodl, H., and Wind, S. (2011). Requirements Engineering for Cloud Computing, Journal of Communications and Computers, Vol. 8, pp. 707-715.

[17]Standish Group, CHAOS Report, available online http://www.standishgroup.com, 2010.

[18]Rouibah, K., and Al-Rafee, S. (2009). Requirement engineering elicitation methods: A Kuwaiti empirical study about familiarity, usage and perceived value, Information Management & Computer Security, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 192-217.

[19]Aurum, A., & Wohlin, C. (Eds.). (2005). Engineering and managing software requirements. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

[20]Beecham, S., Hall, T., & Rainer, A. (2003). Software process improvement problems in twelve software companies: An empirical analysis. Empirical software engineering, 8(1), 7-42.

[21]Leffingwell, D. (1997). Calculating the Return on Investment from More Effective Requirements Management, American Programmer, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 13–16.

[22]Ahmad, S. (2008, March). Negotiation in the requirements elicitation and analysis process. In Software Engineering, 2008. ASWEC 2008. 19th Australian Conference on (pp. 683-689). IEEE.

[23]In, H., & Roy, S. (2001). Visualization issues for software requirements negotiation. In Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2001. COMPSAC 2001. 25th Annual International (pp. 10-15). IEEE.

[24]Watson, A. (2008, September). Reflections on Requirements Engineering. In EDOC, pp. xxxiii – xxxiii, ISBN: 978-0-7695-3373-5, IEEE.

[25]Yen, J., & Tiao, W. A. (1997, January). A systematic tradeoff analysis for conflicting imprecise requirements. In Requirements Engineering, 1997, Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 87-96). IEEE.

[26]Damian, D., Izquierdo, L. Singer, J. and Kwan, I. (2007). Awareness in the wild: Why communication breakdowns occur. In Second IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2007. ICGSE 2007, pages 81-90.

[27]Kwan, I. and Damian, D. (2011). The hidden experts in software-engineering communication (NIER track). In Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE '11, pages 800-803, New York, NY, USA, ACM.

[28]Dhirendra, P. (2013). Requirement Engineering Research, International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology (IJCSET), Vol. 4 No. 04, pp. 447-450, ISSN: 2229-3345.

[29]Sommerville, I., & Kotonya, G. (1998). Requirements engineering: processes and techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[30]Maalej, W., & Thurimella, A. K. (2009, September). Towards a research agenda for recommendation systems in requirements engineering. In Managing Requirements Knowledge (MARK), 2009 Second International Workshop on (pp. 32-39). IEEE.

[31]Castro-Herrera, C., & Cleland-Huang, J. (2010, May). Utilizing recommender systems to support software requirements elicitation. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Recommendation Systems for Software Engineering (pp. 6-10). ACM.

[32]McAllister, C. A. (2006). Requirements determination of information systems: User and developer perceptions of factors contributing to misunderstandings. ProQuest.

[33]Firesmith, D. (2007, May). Engineering Safety and Security Related Requirements for Software Intensive Systems. In ICSE Companion (p. 169).

[34]Sawyer, P., Gervasi, V., & Nuseibeh, B. (2011, August). Unknown known: Tacit knowledge in requirements engineering. In Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), 2011 19th IEEE International (pp. 329-329). IEEE.

[35]Achimugu, P., Selamat, A., Ibrahim, R., & Mahrin, M. N. R. (2014). A systematic literature review of software requirements prioritization research. Information and Software Technology.

[36]Gaur, V., Soni, Anuja., and Bedi, P. (2010). An agent-oriented approach to requirements engineering, in proceedings 2010 IEEE 2nd International Advance Computing Conference, India, pp. 449-454. USA: IEEE Press and IEEE Xplore.

[37]Herrmann, A. (2008). Requirements Prioritisation Based on Benefit and Cost Prediction: An Agenda for Future Research. IEEE, ISBN: 978-0-7695-3309-4, pp. 125-134.

[38]Fehlmann, T. M. (2008, September). New Lanchester theory for requirements prioritization. In Software Product Management, 2008. IWSPM'08. Second International Workshop on (pp. 35-40). IEEE.

[39]Warth, J., von der Gracht, H. A., & Darkow, I. L. (2013). A dissent-based approach for multi-stakeholder scenario development—the future of electric drive vehicles. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(4), 566-583.

[40]Cline, A. (2000). Prioritization process using Delphi technique. Carolla Development. Retrieved March, 8, 2005.

[41]Rosenthal, E.J. (1976) ‘Delphi Technique’ in Anderson, S. (ed) Encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass: 121-122.

[42]McNamee, P.B. (1985) ‘Tools and Techniques for Strategic Management’, Oxford: Pergamon Press.

[43]Dunham, Randall, B. (1998) ‘Organisational Behaviour: The Delphi Technique’, University of Wisconsin School of Business, Retrieved from the World Wide Web, www.instruction.bus.wisc.edu/obdemo/readings/delphi.htm 10th April, 2001.

[44]Weaver, W. T. (1971). The Delphi forecasting method. Phi Delta Kappan, 52 (5), 267-273.

[45]Dalkey, N. C., & Rourke, D. L. (1972). Experimental assessment of Delphi procedures with group value judgments. In N. C. Dalkey, D. L. Rourke, R. Lewis, & D. Snyder (Eds.). Studies in the quality of life: Delphi and decision-making (pp. 55-83). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

[46]Anglin, G. L. (1991). Instructional technology past, present and future. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited Inc.

[47]Jacobs, J. M. (1996). Essential assessment criteria for physical education teacher education programs: A Delphi study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, West Virginia University, Morgantown.

[48]Delbecq, A. L., Van de Ven, A. H., & Gustafson, D. H. (1975). Group techniques for program planning. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, and Co.

[49]Ludwig, B. G. (1994). Internationalizing Extension: An exploration of the characteristics evident in a state university Extension system that achieves internationalization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

[50]Alghazzawi, D. M., Siddiqui, S. T., Bokhari, M. U., & Hamatta, H. S. A. (2014). Selecting Appropriate Requirements Management Tool for Developing Secure Enterprises Software. International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science (IJITCS), 6(4), 49-55.

[51]Kumar, V., & Thareja, R. (2013). Goal Structured Requirement Engineering and Traceability Model for Data Warehouses. International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science (IJITCS), 5(12), 78-85.