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Bio-degradable drilling fluid, coalbed methane, rheological, unconsolidated coal seam, enzyme
In China, horizontal drilling techniques have been widely used in the exploration of coalbed methane (CBM). The drill-in fluids, especially in unconsolidated coal seams, are typically comprised of cellulose polymers, xanthan polymers and guar gums. However, testing and experience have shown that insufficient degradation of filter cakes resulting from even this “clean” drill-in fluids can significantly impede flow capacity at the wellbore wall. Past approaches to minimizing the damage have been the application of strong acids or oxidative breakers systems. They are often only marginally successful, particularly when applied in extended length intervals. Therefore, this paper introduced an engineered technique incorporating non-toxic, environment friendly and economically attractive bio-degradable drilling fluids (BDF).
Extensive lab tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of substrate (polymer) type, substrate concentration, enzyme type and enzyme concentration on the viscosity breaking behaviors of BDFs. We got the conclusions as follows. (1) Power Law model was the best model to matching the rheological properties of BDFs; (2) Compared with konjak, the degradations of Na-CMC and guar gum were easier to be controlled; (3) In the degradation of CMC by enzyme SE-1, the optimal weight concentration ratio of CMC to SE-1 was 3 to 1; (4) Of the three enzymes, enzyme SE-2 had the highest activity and could be used to degrade polymer in shorter time; (5) Higher enzyme concentration could speed up the degradation reaction; (6) Viscosity breaking times fluctuating from 13.5 hours to 74.5 hours and viscosity breaking ratios varying from 20% to 100% could be achieved by modifying the formulations of BDFs.
Cai Jihua, Gu Sui, "Rheological Behaviors of Bio-degradable Drilling Fluids in Horizontal Drilling of Unconsolidated Coal Seams", International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science(IJITCS), vol.3, no.3, pp.1-7, 2011. DOI:10.5815/ijitcs.2011.03.01
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