Microcantilever: An Efficient Tool for Biosensing Applications

Full Text (PDF, 576KB), PP.63-74

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Diksha Sharma 1,* Neeraj Tripathi 1

1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University,Kakryal-182320, India

* Corresponding author.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijisa.2017.10.08

Received: 16 Feb. 2017 / Revised: 22 Mar. 2017 / Accepted: 12 Apr. 2017 / Published: 8 Oct. 2017

Index Terms

Microcantilever, dynamic mode, resonant frequency, biosensing, rheology


Most of the biosensing applications involving analysis and detection of a particular specimen demands fast, easy to use, less expensive, highly reliable and sensitive method for the recognition of biomolecules. The reason behind this increasing demand is that most of the available laboratory equipment require large space, are highly expensive and have other preconditions. Most of the viscometers available for measuring the rheological properties of blood require cleaning after each use which can be challenging due to the capillary geometry. The substitute to this is microcantilever that has emerged as an ideal candidate for biosensing applications. Microcantilever is capable of being used in air, vacuum or liquid medium. This paper consists of seven sections in which working principle of a cantilever, different modes of vibration, their comparative analysis, analytical equations of hydrodynamic equations exerted by the fluid on the cantilever and their impact on the resonant frequency and quality factor, applications of microcantilever in liquid medium specifically in biomedical field are discussed.

Cite This Paper

Diksha Sharma, Neeraj Tripathi, "Microcantilever: An Efficient Tool for Biosensing Applications", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA), Vol.9, No.10, pp.63-74, 2017. DOI: 10.5815/ijisa.2017.10.08


[1]Srinivasa Rao Karumuri1, K.Girija Sravani, S. Durga Sailaja, J.Vijay Sekhar, Y.Srinivas, and Ramendu Bhattacharjee, “Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) Technology”, in Archives of Applied Science Research, pp.307-314,2012.
[2]Turner A.P.F., “Current Trends in Biosensor Research and Development”, Sensors Actuators, Vol. 17, pp. 433-450, 1989.
[3]Christopher J. Pipe, Gareth H. McKinley, “Microfluidic rheometry”, Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 36, pp. 110-120, 2009.
[4]Y. Li, P. Denny, C.-M. Ho, C. Montemagno, W. Shi, “The Oral Fluid MEMS/NEMS Chip: Diagnostic and Translational Applications”, Advances in Dental Research, June 2005.
[5]Mihov, B.Katerska, “Some biocompatible materials used in medical practice”, Trakia Journal of sciences, Vol.2, pp. 119-125,2010.
[6]El-Fatatry A., “Optical Microsystems, Mechno-optical-Electro-Mechanical Systems-MOEMS”, NATO , Science and Technology Organization,2004.
[7]De Dobbelaere P, Falta K, Gloeckner S, Patra S., “ Digital MEMS for optical switching”, IEEE Communication magazine, 40(3), pp. 88-95, March 2002.
[8]Ziaie B. and Najafi K., Biomed. Microdev. Vol. 3, pp. 285-292, 2001.
[9]Allisa M. Fitzgerald, “MEMS for Medical Applications”, IEEE-EMBS, 17 November 2010.
[10]“MEMS sensors for automotive applications”, HIS Market Tracker Automotive MEMS H1, 2014.
[11]Masako Tanaka, “An industrial and applied review of new MEMS devices features”, Microelectronic engineering, Vol. 84, pp. 1341-1344, August 2007.
[12]Keith W. Brendley, Randall Steeb, “Military Applications of Microelectromechanical systems”, National defence research institute.
[13]Courtney E. Howard, “MEMS and nanotechnology continue to solve challenges in military and defense applications”, Military and aerospace, June 5, 2008.
[14]Anuj Kumar Goel, Dr. Kuldip Kumar, “Design and simulation of microcantilevers for sensing applications”, International journal of applied engineering research, pp. 501-503, 2016.
[15]M. Parameswaran, H. P. Baltes, L. Ristic, A. C. Dhaded, and A. M. Robinson, Sensors and Actuators, Vol.3, pp. 289-307, 1989.
[16]Vashist, “A Review of microcantilevers for sensing applications”, Journal of Nanotechnology, Vol.3, 2007.
[17]Manjula sahu, “Simulation of static mode and dynamic mode of microcantilever structures”, International journal of advance engineering and research development, vol. 3, March 2016.
[18]M. Calleja, J. Tamayo, A. Johnsson, P. Rasmussen, L. Lechuga, A. Boisen, “Polymeric Cantilever arrays for biosensing applications”, Sens Lett., 2004.
[19]Michael Sepaniak Panos Datskos, Nickolay Lavrik Christopher Tipple, “Microcantilever Transducers: A New Approach in Sensor Technology”, in Analytical chemistry, November 2002.
[20]Yan F, Chan HLW, “Analytical model of piezoelectric cantilever as rheological sensor”, Phys B, 2011.
[21]Mo Yang, Xuan Zhang, Kambiz Vafai, Cengiz S Ozkan, “High sensitivity piezoresistive cantilever design and optimization for analyte-receptor binding”, J. Micromech. Microeng. , Vol. 13, pp. 864-72, August 2003.
[22]Blanc, N. Brugger, J., Rooij, N.F.D., Durig, U., “Scanning Force microscopy in the dynamic mode using microfabricated capacitive sensors”, J. Vac. Science and Technology. B, Vol. 2, pp. 901-05, 1996.
[23]Meyer, G. & Amer, N.M, “Novel optical approach to atomic force microscopy”, Applied Physics, Lett. , Vol. 53, pp. 1045-47, 1988.
[24]Erlandsson, R. McClelland, G.M., Mate, C.M. & Chiang, S., “Atomic force microscopy using optical interferometry”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. , Vol. 6, pp. 266-70, 1988.
[25]Blake N.Johnson, Raj Mutharasan, “Biosensing using dynamic- mode cantilever sensors: A review”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 32, pp. 1-18, 2012.
[26]Karen M. Goeders, Jonathan S. Colton, Lawrence A. Bottemley, “Microcantilevers: Sensing Chemical Interactions via Mechanical Motion”, Chem. Rev., Vol. 108, pp. 522-542, 2008.
[27]R.D. Blevins, “Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape”, Von Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1979.
[28]John Wiley, “Microcantilever sensors”, chemical sensors and biosensors: fundamentals and applications, 2012.
[29]Onur Cakmak, Caglar Elbuken, Erhan Ermek, Ibrahim Baris, Hakan Urey, “Microcantilever based disposable viscosity sensor for serum and blood plasma measurements”, Methods, Vol. 63, pp. 225-232, 2013.
[30]Boskovic, S.; Chon, J.W.M.; Mulvaney, P.; Sader, J.E., “Rheological measurements using microcantilevers, Journal of Rheology, Vol. 46, pp. 891-899, 2002.
[31]Hennemeyer, M.; Burghardt, S.; Stark, R.W., “Cantilever micro-rheometer for the characterization of sugar solutions”, Sensors, Vol. 8, pp. 10-22, 2008.
[32]I. Dufour, A. Maali, Y. Amarouchene, C. Ayela, B. Caillard, A. Darwiche, D. Saya, “The Microcantilever: a versatile tool for measuring the rheological properties of Complex fluids”, Journal of Sensors, 2012.
[33]Cox, R.; Zhang, J.; L.A. Brand, “Damping and mass sensitivity of laterally vibrating resonant microcantilevers in viscous liquid media”, In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Joint Conference on Frequency Control and the European Frequency and time forum, San Francisco, USA, pp. 1-6, May 2011.
[34]N. Belmiloud, I. Dufour, A. Colin, L. Nicu, “Rheological behavior probed by vibrating microcantilevers”, Applied Physics, Vol. 92, pp. 041907-41909,2008.
[35]L.A. Beardslee, F.Josse, S.M. Heinrich, I. Dufour, O. Brand, “Geometrical considerations for the design of liquid-phase bio-chemical sensors using a cantilever’s fundamental in-plane mode”, in Sensors and Actuators B, Vol. 164, pp.7-14, 2012.
[36]Naeli, K. and O. Brand, “Dimensional Considerations in Achieving Large Quality Factors for Resonant Silicon Cantilevers”, in Air. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 1, pp. 014908, 2009.
[37]L.A. Beardslee, .M. Addous, K.S. Demirci, O. Brand, F.Josse, “Geometrical optimization of resonant cantilevers vibrating in in-plane flexural mode”, IEEE Sensors Conference, 2010.
[38]Seo, J.H., O. Brand, “High Q-factor in-plane mode resonant microsensor platform for gaseous/liquid environment”, Journal of Microelectromechanical systems, Vol. 2, pp. 483-493, 2008.
[39]Russell Cox, Fabein Josse, Stephen M. Heinrich, Oliver Brand, Isabelle Dufour, “Characteristics of laterally vibrating resonant microcantilevers in viscous liquid media”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, 2012.
[40]G.K. Batchelor, “An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Vol. 169, 1967.
[41]I. Dufour, E. Lemaire, B. Caillard, H. Debeda, C. Lucat, S.M. Heinrich, O. Brand, “Effect of hydrodynamic force on microcantilever vibrations: Application to liquid-phase chemical sensing”, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 192, pp. 664-672, 2014.
[42]S. Basak, A. Raman, “Hydrodynamic loading of microcantilevers vibrating in viscous fluids”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 99, 2006.
[43]L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, “Fluid Mechanics”, Pergamon Press, London, 1959.
[44]C. Vancura, I. Dufour, S.M. Heinrich, F. Josse, Sensors and Actuators A- Physical, Vol. 141, pp. 43-51, 2008.
[45]A. Maali, C. Hurth, R. Boisgard, C. Jai, T. Cohen-Bouchacina, J.P. Aime. “Hydrodynamics of oscillating atomic force microscopy cantilevers in viscous medium”, Journal of Applied Physics, 97(7), 2005.
[46]U. Sampath, S.M. Heinrich, F. Josse, D. Rebiere, “Study viscoelastic effect on the frequency shift of microcantilever chemical sensors”, IEEE Trans.Vol. 11, 2006.
[47]I. Dufour, “Strong-axis bending mode vibrations for resonant cantilever biochemical sensors in gas or liquid phase”, Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International, Montreal, August 2004.
[48]J.E Sader, “Frequency response of cantilever beams immersed in viscous fluids with application to the atomic force microscope”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, 2000.
[49]J.Sader, J.Appl. Physics, 84,1998
[50]S.M. Heinrich, R. Maharajan, L. Beardslee, O. Brand, I. Dufour and F. Josse, in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Nanomechanical cantilever Sensors, Banff, Canada, pp. 26-28, May 2010.
[51]M. Youssry, N. Belmiloud, B. Caillard, C. Ayela, C. Pellet, I. Dufour, “ A straightforward determination of fluid viscosity and density using microcantilevers: From experimental data to analytical expressions”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 172,40-46,2011.
[52]Li, X. et al., “Integrated MEMS/NEMS Resonant Cantilevers for Ultrasensitive Biological Detection”, Journal of sensors, 2009.
[53]Urey, H., et al. “MEMS Biosensor for Parallel and Highly sensitive and Specific Detection of Hepatitis”, in 24th IEEE MEMS Conference, 2011.
[54]Seo, J.H., “Silicon- Based Resonant Microsensor Platform for Chemical and Biological Applications”, in Electrical and Computer Engineering, pp. 192, 2007.
[55]D. Lange, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, O. Brand, H. Baltes, “Complementary metal oxide semiconductor cantilever arrays on a single chip: mass sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds”, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 13, pp. 3084-3095, 2002.
[56]B. Jakoby, M. Scherer, M. Buskies, and H. Eisenschmid, “An automotive engine oil viscosity sensor”, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 3, pp. 52-568, 2008.
[57]P.Sangeetha, Dr. A.Vimala Juliet, “Simulation and analysis of microcantilever sensor for enhanced biosensing of disease causing pathogens”, IJEDR conference proceeding, 2014.
[58]Shriram K Vasudevan, Sivaraman R, Subashri V, Murali N, “Design and development of an embedded system for monitoring the health status of patient”, I.J. Intelligent systems and applications, pp. 64-71, 2013.
[59]Lawrence Yu, Brian J. Kim, Ellis Meng, “Chronically implanted pressure sensors: Challenges and State of the Field”, Sensors, 14(11), pp. 20620-20644, November 2014.
[60]Jay S. Yadav, “CardioMEMS Champion Heart Failure Monitoring System”, December 2011.
[61]Michael A. Fonseca, Mark G. Allen , Jason Kroh and Jason White, “Flexible Wireless Passive Pressure Sensors for Biomedical Applications”, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems Workshop Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, June 4-8, 2006.
[62]Joe Bailey, “Cantilever Biosensors: Towards the Magnetic Detection of Viruses”, University College, London, December 2015 (Ph.D. Thesis).
[63]Q. Yu, Future Oncol, Vol. 1, pp. 475-484, 2005.
[64]Carlo Ricciardi, Giancarlo Canavese, Ricardo Castagna, Ivan Ferrante, Alessandro Ricci, Lucia Napione, “Integration of microfluidic and cantilever technology for biosensing application in liquid environment”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 26, 1565-1570, 15 December 2010.
[65]G. V. Sunil Kumar , T. Milinda Purna, Dr. V. R. Anitha, “NonInvasive Technique for the Measurement of Glucose Levels in Blood using MEMS Devices”, IJETAE, Vol. 4, August 2014.
[66]Sensors and transducers e-digest, Vol. 9, Issue 5, May 2007.