An Enhanced Adaptive k-Nearest Neighbor Classifier Using Simulated Annealing

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Anozie Onyezewe 1,* Armand F. Kana 1 Fatimah B. Abdullahi 1 Aminu O. Abdulsalami 1

1. Department of Computer Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

* Corresponding author.


Received: 2 Nov. 2019 / Revised: 23 Dec. 2019 / Accepted: 13 Jan. 2020 / Published: 8 Feb. 2021

Index Terms

Adaptive Algorithms, Classification, Heuristic Learning, k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Parameter Optimization


The k-Nearest Neighbor classifier is a non-complex and widely applied data classification algorithm which does well in real-world applications. The overall classification accuracy of the k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm largely depends on the choice of the number of nearest neighbors(k). The use of a constant k value does not always yield the best solutions especially for real-world datasets with an irregular class and density distribution of data points as it totally ignores the class and density distribution of a test point’s k-environment or neighborhood. A resolution to this problem is to dynamically choose k for each test instance to be classified. However, given a large dataset, it becomes very tasking to maximize the k-Nearest Neighbor performance by tuning k. This work proposes the use of Simulated Annealing, a metaheuristic search algorithm, to select optimal k, thus eliminating the prospect of an exhaustive search for optimal k. The results obtained in four different classification tasks demonstrate a significant improvement in the computational efficiency against the k-Nearest Neighbor methods that perform exhaustive search for k, as accurate nearest neighbors are returned faster for k-Nearest Neighbor classification, thus reducing the computation time.

Cite This Paper

Anozie Onyezewe, Armand F. Kana, Fatimah B. Abdullahi, Aminu O. Abdulsalami, "An Enhanced Adaptive k-Nearest Neighbor Classifier Using Simulated Annealing", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA), Vol.13, No.1, pp.34-44, 2021. DOI:10.5815/ijisa.2021.01.03


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