Translation Movement Stability Control of Quad Tiltrotor Using LQR and LQG

Full Text (PDF, 1060KB), PP.10-21

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Andi Dharmawan 1,* Ahmad Ashari 1 Agfianto Eko Putra 1

1. Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

* Corresponding author.


Received: 4 Jun. 2017 / Revised: 5 Jul. 2017 / Accepted: 21 Jul. 2017 / Published: 8 Mar. 2018

Index Terms

UAV, quadrotor, overactuated, underactuated, Newton-Euler


Quadrotor as one type of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is a system that underactuated. It means that the system has a signal control amount is lower than the degrees of freedom or DOF (Degree Of Freedom). This condition causes the quadrotor have limited mobility. If quadrotor is made to have 6 DOF or more (overactuated system), the motion control system to optimise the flight will be different from before. We need to develop overactuated quadrotor control. Quadtiltrotor as the development of quadrotor has some control signal over its DOF. So we call it as an overactuated system. Based on the type of manoeuvre to do, the transition process when the quad tiltrotor performs a translational motion using the tilting rotor need special treatment. The tilt angle change is intended that the quad tiltrotor can perform translational motion while still maintaining its orientation angle near 0°. This orientation angle can change during the undesirable rotational movement as the effect of the transition process. If additional rotational movements cannot be damped, the quad tiltrotor can experience multi overshoot, steady-state error, or even fall. Because of this matter, we need to develop flight control system to handle it. The flight control system of quad tiltrotor can be designed using a model of the system. Models can be created using quad tiltrotor dynamics by the Newton-Euler approach. Then the model is simulated along with the control system using the method of control. Several control methods can be utilised in a quad tiltrotor flight systems. However, with the implementation of LQG control method and Integrator, optimal translational control of the quad tiltrotor can be achieved.

Cite This Paper

Andi Dharmawan, Ahmad Ashari, Agfianto Eko Putra, "Translation Movement Stability Control of Quad Tiltrotor Using LQR and LQG", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA), Vol.10, No.3, pp.10-21, 2018. DOI:10.5815/ijisa.2018.03.02


[1]E. A. Euteneuer and G. Papageorgiou, “UAS insertion into commercial airspace: Europe and US standards perspective,” in IEEE/AIAA 30th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2011, p. 5C5-1-5C5-12.
[2]A. Ashari, A. Dharmawan, D. Lelono, I. Usuman, and T. W. Supardi, “Quadcopter Control System for Natural Disaster Evacuation Support System,” in ICCSE (International Conference on Computer Science, Electronics, and Instrumentation), 2012, pp. 75–80.
[3]S. Gupte, Paul Infant Teenu Mohandas, and J. M. Conrad, “A survey of quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” in 2012 Proceedings of IEEE Southeastcon, 2012, pp. 1–6.
[4]L. R. G. Carrillo, A. E. D. López, R. Lozano, and C. Pégard, Quad Rotorcraft Control. London: Springer London, 2013.
[5]T. K. Priyambodo, A. E. Putra, and A. Dharmawan, “Optimizing control based on ant colony logic for Quadrotor stabilization,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Aerospace Electronics and Remote Sensing Technology (ICARES), 2015, vol. 1, pp. 1–4.
[6]T. K. Priyambodo, A. Dharmawan, and A. E. Putra, “PID self tuning control based on Mamdani fuzzy logic control for quadrotor stabilization,” in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2016, vol. 1705.
[7]M. Ryll, H. H. Bulthoff, and P. R. Giordano, “Modeling and Control of a Quadrotor UAV with Tilting Propellers,” in 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2012, pp. 4606–4613.
[8]K. T. Oner, E. Cetinsoy, M. Unel, M. F. Aksit, I. Kandemir, and K. Gulez, “Dynamic Model and Control of a New Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Tilt-Wing Mechanism,” Int. J. Mech. Aerospace, Ind. Mechatronics Eng., vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 12–17, 2008.
[9]R. Voyles and G. Jiang, “Hexrotor UAV Platform Enabling Dextrous Interaction with Structures - Preliminary Work,” in IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), 2012, vol. 0, no. c, pp. 1–7.
[10]A. Sanchez, J. Escareño, O. Garcia, and R. Lozano, “Autonomous Hovering of a Noncyclic Tiltrotor UAV : Modeling , Control and Implementation,” in Proceedings of the 17th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control, 2008, pp. 803–808.
[11]M. Ryll, H. H. Bülthoff, and P. R. Giordano, “A novel overactuated quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle: Modeling, control, and experimental validation,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 540–556, Mar. 2015.
[12]A. B. Chowdhury, A. Kulhare, and G. Raina, “A Generalized Control Method for A Tilt-Rotor UAV Stabilization,” in IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 2012, pp. 309–314.
[13]S. Abiko and K. Tashiro, “Fundamental numerical and experimental evaluation of attitude recovery control for a quad tilt rotor UAV against disturbance,” in 2016 16th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS), 2016, pp. 709–712.
[14]A. Soukkou, M. C. Belhour, and S. Leulmi, “Review, Design, Optimization and Stability Analysis of Fractional-Order PID Controller,” Int. J. Intell. Syst. Appl., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 73–96, Jul. 2016.
[15]A. Nawikavatan, S. Tunyasrirut, and D. Puangdownreong, “Application of Intensified Current Search to Multiobjective PID Controller Optimization,” Int. J. Intell. Syst. Appl., vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 51–60, Nov. 2016.
[16]A. Nagaty, S. Saeedi, C. Thibault, M. Seto, and H. Li, “Control and Navigation Framework for Quadrotor Helicopters,” J. Intell. Robot. Syst., vol. 70, no. 1–4, pp. 1–12, Oct. 2012.
[17]A. Dharmawan, A. Ashari, and A. E. Putra, “PID Control Systems Using LQR Approach for Quadrotor Flight Stability,” in International Conference on Science and Technology (ICST), 2016.
[18]A. Dharmawan and I. F. Arismawan, “Sistem Kendali Penerbangan Quadrotor pada Keadaan Melayang dengan Metode LQR dan Kalman Filter,” IJEIS (Indonesian J. Electron. Instrum. Syst., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 49, Apr. 2017.
[19]M. H. Amoozgar and A. Chamseddine, “Experimental Test of a Two-Stage Kalman Filter for Actuator Fault Detection and Diagnosis of an Unmanned Quadrotor Helicopter,” J. Intell. Robot. Syst., pp. 107–117, 2013.
[20]E. Lavretsky and K. A. Wise, Robust and Adaptive Control. London: Springer London, 2013.
[21]A. Dharmawan, Y. Y. Simanungkalit, and N. Y. Megawati, “Pemodelan Sistem Kendali PID pada Quadcopter dengan Metode Euler Lagrange,” IJEIS - Indones. J. Electron. Instrum. Syst., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 2014.
[22]A. Dharmawan, A. Ashari, and A. E. Putra, “Mathematical Modelling of Translation and Rotation Movement in Quad Tiltrotor,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 7, no. 3, p. 1104, Jun. 2017.
[23]R. W. Prouty, Helicopter Performance, Stability, and Control, 2002nd ed. Krieger Pub Co, 2002.
[24]K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 5th ed. New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall, 2010.
[25]M. Athans and P. Falb, Optimal Control: An Introduction to the Theory and Its Applications (Dover Books on Engineering). New York, USA: Dover Publications, 2006.
[26]R. E. Bellman, Dynamic Programming. New Jersey, USA: Dover Publications, 2003.
[27]B. Messner and D. Tilbury, “Control Tutorials for Matlab and Simulink,” 2011. [Online]. Available:
[28]D. A. Bini, B. Iannazzo, and B. Meini, Numerical Solution of Algebraic Riccati Equations. Philadelphia, USA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2012.
[29]N. Arora and J. R. Saini, “Estimation and Approximation Using Neuro-Fuzzy Systems,” Int. J. Intell. Syst. Appl., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 9–18, Jun. 2016.
[30]J. F. Shepherd and K. Tumer, “Robust neuro-control for a micro quadrotor,” in Proceedings of the 12th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation - GECCO ’10, 2010, p. 1131.
[31]E. Pfeifer and F. Kassab Jr., “Dynamic Feedback Controller of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle,” in 2012 Brazilian Robotics Symposium and Latin American Robotics Symposium, 2012, pp. 261–266.
[32]C. Di, Q. Geng, Q. Hu, and W. Wu, “High performance L1 adaptive control design for longitudinal dynamics of fixed-wing UAV,” in The 27th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (2015 CCDC), 2015, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1514–1519.