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Extra heart sound, phonocardiogram modeling, cyclostationarity, cyclic statistics, Gabor kernel, diseases of heart
Phonocardiograms (PCG) Phonocardiograms (PCG) are recordings of the acoustic waves produced by the mechanical action of the cardiac system. This makes PCG an effective method for tracking the progress of heart diseases. A PCG signal, in the healthy case, consists of two fundamental sounds s1 and s2. These two elements are derived from the mechanical functioning of the heart. A triple rhythm in diastole is called a gallop and results from the presence of a heart sound s3, s4 or both. An Extra Heart Sound (EHS) may not be a sign of disease. However, in some situations it is an important sign of disease, which, if detected early, could save lives. The major aim of this study is to propose cyclostationary and Gabor kernel based mathematical model for extra heart sounds. The ambition behind it is to present a framework, making use of cyclic statistics for robustness to low SNR conditions, which allow the detection of EHS s3 and s4 and hence the early identification of some heart diseases. For this reason, the proposed model is compared with the one of normal PCG signal  in order to set up the differences allowing the early detection of EHS. Lastly, this research is proved on experimental data sets.
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