Cover page and Table of Contents: PDF (size: 1066KB)
Full Text (PDF, 1066KB), PP.22-46
Views: 0 Downloads: 0
Crowdsourcing, Risk Management, Value Generation, Technological Advancements, Digital Product Designs
The benefits of crowdsourcing are enabled by open environments where multiple external stakeholders contribute to a firm's outcomes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has emerged as a distributed model of problem-solving and market development. Here, model assignments are assigned to networked individuals to complete so that the manufacturing expense of a business can be minimized considerably. The main objective of this research is to develop a methodology which will capture the value generation process in the presence of uncertainties (Risk factors) in crowdsourcing context. This study is designed to make an important contribution to the field of practice and knowledge. Value-Risk Analysis of crowd souring is one of the under studies Worldwide, especially in Pakistan. Provided the need, we have discussed the crowdsourcing as business process and presented an understanding of the risks associated with crowdsourcing use and possible strategies that can be used to maximize the value and minimize the identified risks.
For the better understanding of crowdsourcing practices in Pakistan, three case studies were conducted based on three well reputed organizations of Pakistan and results gathered to help understand its practices, some of the risks associated with it and how they manage those risks.
Muhammad Saady, Qurat-ul-Ain, Sidra Anwar, Sadia Anayat, Samia Rafique, "Value-Risk Analysis of Crowdsourcing in Pakistan’s Perspective", International Journal of Information Engineering and Electronic Business(IJIEEB), Vol.13, No.2, pp. 22-46, 2021. DOI:10.5815/ijieeb.2021.02.03
Galdon, J. L., Garrigos-Simon, F. J., & Gil, I. (2015). Improving hotel industry processes through crowdsourcing techniques. In R. Egger, I. Gula, & D. Walcher (Eds.), Open tourism: Open innovation, crowdsourcing and co-creation challenging the tourism industry. Berlin: Springer.
Garrigos-Simon, F. J., Narangajavana, Y., & Galdón- Salvador, J. L. (2014). Crowdsourcing as a competitive advantage for new business models. Strategies in E-business (pp. 20–37). US: Springer.
Kleemann, F., Voß, G. G., & Rieder, K. (2008). ‘Un(der)paid innovators: The commercial utilization of consumer work through crowdsourcing’, Science, Technology & Innovation Studies, 4(1), 5–26.
Hugh, G. (2010) SXSW: the era of crowdsourcing: guiding principles, [Online].Available at: http://hughgarry.typepad.com/hugh_garry/page/3/
Raphael A., Cristoph Z. (2001). ‘Value creation in e- business’, strategic management journal, (June 2001)
Hugo W. (2010) Towards 2011: An information technology strategy for SAEON. [pdf] [Online]. Available at: http://www.eepublishers.co.za/images/upload/SAEON_Suppl ement_2010.pdf
Kannangara, S. N., and Uguccioni, P. (2013) ‘Risk Management in Crowdsourcing-Based Business Ecosystems‘, Technology Innovation Management Review, (December 2013: Living Labs and Crowdsourcing). 7374
Kittur, A. et al. (2013) ‘The Future of Crowd Work’, presented at the CSCW Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, San Antonio, Texas, 2013.
Andriole, S. J. (2010) ‘Business impact of Web 2.0 technologies. ‘, Communications of the ACM, 53(12), pp. 67- 79.
Casares-Giner et al. (2011) ‘Mobility models for mobility management’, Network performance engineering, pp. (716- 745), Springer
Flinders, K. (2009), ‘Crowdsourcing reveals 600 search engineflaws’,[Online]. Available:http://www.computerweekly.com/Articles/2009/09/1 5/237731/crowdsourcing reveals- 600- search-engine- flaws.htm
Viotti, M., Bowman, C., Harris, T., Mercuri, M., and Satorius, B. (2012) ‘Mars Public Engagement Program’, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109.
Saxton, G. D., Onook, O. and Rajiv, K. (2013) ‘Rules of crowdsourcing: Models, issues, and systems of control’, Information Systems Management, 30(1), pp. 2-20.
Hoover, J. (2009) ‘Web 2.0 Expo: Startup aims at public policy crowdsourcing’, Information Week Government, November 19 [Online]. Availableat: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/info management/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=221900331
Tapscott, D. and Williams, A. D., (2008) Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything. New York: Portfolio.16. Garrigos-Simon, F.J. (2012) ‘Participation throughout the importance of crowdsourcing crowd’, 6th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management, 2012. Estellés-Arolas, E. and González-Ladrón-de-Guevara,
F. (2012) ‘Towards an integrated crowdsourcing definition‘, Journal of Information Science, 38(2), pp. 189-200.
Kazai G. (2011) Lecture: In Search of Quality in crowdsourcing for Search Engine Evaluation, 33rd European conference on Advances in Information retrieval. Springer Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6611, pp. 165-176)
Howe J. (2006a) ‘The rise of crowdsourcing’, Wired, pp. 1–4.
Howe J. (2006b) Crowdsourcing: A definition. Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business. [Online]. Available at: http://crowdsourcing.typepad.com/cs/2006/06 /crowdsourcing_a.html
Antikainen, M.J. and Vaataja, H.K. (2010), ’Rewarding in Open Innovation Communities—How to Motivate Members’, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, pp. 440-456.
Howe, J. (2008) Crowdsourcing: Why the power of the crowd is driving the future of business.New York: Crown Publishing.
Howe, J. (2009) ‘Obama and Crowdsourcing: A Failed Relationship?’, Wired Blog, April 1[Online]. Available at: http://www.wired.com/business/2009/04/obama-and-crowd/
Yang, J., Adamic, L. and Ackerman M. (2008) ‘Crowdsourcing and knowledge sharing: strategic user behavior on task’, 9th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, pp. 246- 255 75
Vakharia, D. and Matthew, L. (2013) ‘Beyond AMT: An Analysis of Crowd Work Platforms‘, arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.1672 (2013).
Alonso, O., Rose, D. E. and Stewart, B. (2008) ‘Crowdsourcing for relevance evaluation.’ ACM SIGIR Forum, 42(2) pp. 9-15 [Online]. Available at: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1480508
Alonso, O. and Lease, M. (2011) ‘Crowdsourcing 101: Putting the WSDM of Crowds to Work for You’, fourth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining, WSDM ’11 (ACM, New York, 2011) pp.1-2.
Leimeister, J. M. (2012) ’Crowdsourcing’, Zeitschrift für Controlling und Management (ZFCM), 56, pp. 388-392.
Gireeja, R. and Lav R. Varshney (2012) ‘To crowdsource or not to crowdsourcr?’, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
Boches, E. (2009) ‘Ideas & Innovation: Learnings from 130 people talking about crowdsourcing’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.mullen.com/2009/08/learnings-from- 130- people-talking-about-crowdsourcing/
Whitla, P. (2009) ‘Crowdsourcing and its application in marketing activities’, Contemporary Management Research, pp. 15-28.
Woolley, A. W., Chabris, C. F., Pentland, A., Hashmi, N., and Malone, T. W. (2010) ‘Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups‘, science, 330(6004), pp. 686-688.
Herrnstein, R. J. and Murray, C. (2010) Bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life, Simon and Schuster. 7634. Aggarwal, I., Woolley, A. W., Chabris, C., and Malone, T. (2011) ‘The relationship between collective intelligence, cognitive diversity and team learning.V‘, in 71st meeting of the Academy of Management, San Antonio, TX.
Robu, V. H., Halpin, H. and Shepher (2009) ‘Emergence of consensus and shared vocabularies in collaborative tagging systems‘, ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB) 3(4) Article 14.
Buecheler T., Sieg J. H., Füchslin R. M. and Pfeifer R. (2010) ‘Crowdsourcing, Open Innovation and Collective Intelligence in the Scientific Method: A Research Agenda and Operational Framework’, in H. Fellerman (ed.) Artificial Life XII. Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Odense, Denmark, 19-23 August 2010, pp. 679-686.
Brabham, D. C. (2012)‘The myth of amateur crowds: A critical discourse analysis of crowdsourcing coverage‘, Information, Communication & Society, 15(3), pp. 394-410.
Brabham,D. C. (2013) ‘The Origins of Crowdsourcing‘[Online]. Available at: http://dbrabham.wordpress.com/2013/02/23/the-origins-of- crowdsourcing.