Design and Development of a Mixed-Mode Domestic Solar Dryer

Full Text (PDF, 461KB), PP.55-65

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Ikechukwu Celestine UGWUOKE 1 Ibukun Blessing Ikechukwu 2 Ogbe Eric Ifianyi 1

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

2. Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

* Corresponding author.


Received: 9 Nov. 2018 / Revised: 25 Jan. 2019 / Accepted: 15 Feb. 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019

Index Terms

Mixed-mode, domestic, solar dryer, solar collector, drying chamber


This work focuses on the design and development of a mixed-mode domestic solar dryer in which the slices of pepper, okra and yam were dried simultaneously by both direct radiation through the transparent glass roof of the drying chamber and by the heated air from the solar collector. The dryer was made up of the solar collector, the desiccant chamber and the drying chamber which contains a rack of three trays. The air comes in through the air inlet and heated up within the solar collector and then channeled through the drying chamber by natural convection where it is utilized for drying purposes. The development was done using locally sourced and readily available materials such as wood, transparent glass sheet, mild steel metal sheet, mosquito galvanized wire mesh and chicken galvanized wire mesh. The maximum temperature attained by the solar collector, drying chamber during test were 69oC and 55oC respectively, with a corresponding ambient temperature of 39oC. The mass of water removal of 43g, 136g and 255g from pepper, okra and yam slices respectively was achieved making use of the passive solar food dryer as against the water removal of 39g, 126g and 218g from pepper, okra and yam slices respectively achieved using the sun drying method which indicates a difference of 4g, 10g and 37g for pepper, okra and yam slices respectively. The rapid rate of drying achieved with the use of this dryer shows that it has the ability to dry food items rapidly to an acceptable moisture content level.

Cite This Paper

Ikechukwu Celestine Ugwuoke, Ibukun Blessing Ikechukwu, Ogbe Eric Ifianyi,"Design and Development of a Mixed-Mode Domestic Solar Dryer", International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing(IJEM), Vol.9, No.3, pp.55-65, 2019. DOI: 10.5815/ijem.2019.03.05


[1]Abdullahi Y, Momoh M, Garba MM, Musa M. Design and Construction of an Adjustable and Collapsible Natural Convection Solar Food Dryer. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research 2013; 3(6), 1-8.

[2]Bassey MW. Development and use of solar drying technologies, Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy 1989; 133-164.

[3]Diamante LM, Munro PA. Mathematical Modelling of Thin Layer Solar Drying of Sweet Potatoes, Solar Energy 2004; (51), 176 – 271.

[4]Ekechukwu OV, Norton B. Review of Solar Energy Drying Systems iii: Low Temperature Air-Heating Solar Collector for Drying Application, Energy Conversion and Management 1999; 40, 615-655.

[5]Ezekoye BA, Enebe OM. Development and Performance Evaluation of Modified Integrated Passive Solar Grain Dryer, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 2006; 7(2), 185- 190. 

[6]Forson FK, Nazha MAA, Akuffo FO, Rajakaruna H. Design of Mixed-Mode Natural Convection Solar Crop Dryers: Application of principles and rules of thumb. Renewable Energy Journal 2007; 32.

[7]Gatea AA. Design, construction and performance evaluation of solar maize dryer. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development 2010; 2(3), 39-46.

[8]Irtwange SV, Adebayo S. Development and Performance of a Laboratory-Scale Passive Solar Grain Dryer. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development 2009; 1(2), 42-49.

[9]Itodo IN, Obetta SE, Satimehin AA. Evaluation of a solar crop dryer for rural applications in Nigeria. Botswana J. Technol. 2002; 11(2), 58-62.

[10]Nejat TV. Alternative Energy Sources viii, Hemisphere Publishing Company 1989; 1

[11]Olaloye DO. (2008), The Design and Construction of Solar Incubator, Project Report Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Agriculture, Aboekuta.

[12]Raju RVS, Reddy RM, Reddy ES. Design and Fabrication of Efficient Solar Dryer. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications 2013; 3(6), 1445-1458.

[13]Senger SH, Khandetod YP, Mohod AG. Low Cost Solar Dryer for Fish. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2009; 3(9), 265-271.

[14]Sukhatme SP. Solar Energy Principles of Thermal Collection and Storage. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited 1996.

[15]Umogbai VI, Iorter HA. Design, construction and performance evaluation of a passive solar dryer for maize cobs. African Journal of Food Science and Technology 2013; 4(5), 110-115.

[16]Waewsak J, Chindaruksa S, Punlek C. A mathematical modeling study of hot air drying for some agricultural products. Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology 2006, 11(1), 14 – 20.

[17]Whitefield DE. Solar Dryer Systems and Internet, Important Resources to Improve Food Preparation. Proceedings of International Conference on Solar Cooking, Kimberly, South Africa 2000.

[18]Yaldiz O, Ertekin C, Uzun HB. Mathematical modelling of thin layer solar drying of sultana grapes. Energy 2001; 26, 457–465.