Effects of Blue Light on Mycelium Morphology, Citrinin Production and the Proportion of Sexual Spore of Monascus

Full Text (PDF, 152KB), PP.77-83

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Jing Wang 1,* Changlu Wang 1 Mianhua Chen 1 Zhao Ban 1 Dong He 1 Hua Yang 1 Qian Zhang 1 Yurong Wang 1 Fengjuan Li 1 Qimei Gu 1

1. Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, No. 29, the 13th Avenue, TEDA, Tianjin 300457, P. R. China

* Corresponding author.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2011.04.12

Received: 12 May 2011 / Revised: 15 Jun. 2011 / Accepted: 22 Jul. 2011 / Published: 29 Aug. 2011

Index Terms

Blue light, citrinin, sexual spore, hyphal morphology, Monascus


To Monascus spp., light is not the required factor for its growth. But Monascus spp. has the capacity to sense and respond to light. This paper investigated the effects of blue light on growth and the changes of citrinin yield in Monascus 15. Our results demonstrated blue light was a stimulating signal for citrinin formation. Under the blue light illumination, the biomass of Monascus 15 was inhibited, but the citrinin yield increased when comparing with no light culture condition. Spores statistical results revealed that the blue light also influences the development of mycelium and spore formation.

Cite This Paper

Jing Wang, Changlu Wang, Mianhua Chen, Zhao Ban, Dong He, Hua Yang, Qian Zhang, Yurong Wang, Fengjuan Li, Qimei Gu, "Effects of Blue Light on Mycelium Morphology, Citrinin Production and the Proportion of Sexual Spore of Monascus", IJEM, vol.1, no.4, pp.77-83, 2011. DOI: 10.5815/ijem.2011.04.12


[1]G. Nagahashi, D. Douds, Jr and M. Buee, “Light-induced hyphal branching of germinated AM fungal spores,” Plant and Soil, vol. 219, pp. 71–79, 2000

[2]Harding, R.W., and Turner, R. V., “Photoregulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in albino and white collar mutants of Neurospora crassa,” Plant Physiol, vol. 68, pp. 745–749, 1981

[3]Perkins, D. D., “Photoinduced carotenoid synthesis in perithecial wall tissue of Neurospora crassa,” Fungal Genet. Newsl, vol. 35, pp. 38–39, 1988

[4]Degli-Innocenti, F., Pohl, U., and Russo, V. E. A, “Photoinduction of protoperithecia in Neurospora crassa by blue light,” Photochem. Photobiol. Vol. 37, pp. 49–51, 1983

[5]Harding, R. W., and Melles, S., “Genetic analysis of the phototrophism of Neurospora crassa perithecial beaks using white collar and albino mutants,” Plant Physiol, vol. 72, pp. 996–1000, 1983

[6]Perkins, D. D., Radford, A., Newmeyer, D., and Bjorkmann, M., “Chromosomal loci of Neurospora crassa,” Microbiol. Rev, vol. 46, pp. 426–570, 1982

[7]Ballario, P., Vittorioso, P., Magrelli, A., Talora, C., Cabibbo, A., and Macino, “G. White collar-1, a central regulator of blue light responses in Neurospora, is a zinc finger protein,” EMBO J, vol.15, pp. 1650–1657, 1996

[8]H. Linden, P. Ballario, G. Macinol, “Blue Light Regulation in Neurospora crassa,” Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 22, pp. 141–150, 1997

[9]Gressel, J. Galun, E., “Morphogenesis in Trichoderma: photoinduction and RNA,” Dev Biol, vol. 15, pp. 575–598, 1967

[10]Gresik, M., Kolarova, N. & Farkas, V., “Membrane potential, ATP, and cyclic AMP changes induced by light in Trichoderma viride,” Exp Mycol, vol. 12, pp. 295–301, 1988

[11]Sekiguchi, J., and G. M. Gaucher, “Conidiogenesis and secondary metabolism in Penicillium urticae,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol. 33, pp. 147–158, 1977

[12]Calvo, A. M., H. W. Gardner, and N. P. Keller, “Genetic connection between fatty acid metabolism and sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans,” J. Biol. Chem, vol. 276, pp. 20766–20774, 2001

[13]Kawamura, C., T. Tsujimoto, and T. Tsuge, “Targeted disruption of a melanin biosynthesis gene affects conidial development and UV tolerance in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata,” Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact, vol. 12, pp. 59–63, 1999

[14]Hicks, J., J.-H. Yu, N. Keller, and T. H. Adams, “Aspergillus sporulation and mycotoxin production both require inactivation of the FadA Galpha protein-dependent signaling pathway,” EMBO J, vol. 16, pp. 4916–4923, 1997

[15]Trail F., Mahanti N, and Linz J., “Molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis,” Microbiology, vol. 141, pp. 755–765, 1995

[16]Wong, H. C, “Antibiotic and pigment production by Monascus purpureus,” Ph. D. Thesis, University of Georgia, 1982

[17]Sumathy Babitha, Julio C. Carvahlo, Carlos R. Soccol and A"shok Pandey, “Effect of light on growth, pigment production and culture morphology of Monascus purpureus in solid-state fermentation,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 2671-2675, 2008