A Systematic Review of 3D Metaphoric Information Visualization

Full Text (PDF, 1433KB), PP.73-93

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


A.S.K. Wijayawardena 1,* Ruvan Abeysekera 1 M.W.P Maduranga 2

1. IIC University of Technology, Phnom Penh, 121206, the Kingdom of Cambodia

2. Department of Computer Engineering, General Sir Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka

* Corresponding author.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2023.01.06

Received: 26 May 2022 / Revised: 10 Jul. 2022 / Accepted: 19 Oct. 2022 / Published: 8 Feb. 2023

Index Terms

3D Metaphors, Interactive Data Visualization, Human-Computer-Interaction, Metaphoric Data Visualization


Today, large volumes of complex data are collected in many application domains such as health, finance and business. However, using traditional data visualization techniques, it is challenging to visualize abstract information to gain valuable insights into complex multidimensional datasets. One major challenge is the higher cognitive load in interpreting information. In this context, 3D metaphor-based information visualization has become a key research area in helping to gain useful insight into abstract data. Therefore, it has become critical to investigate the evolution of 3D metaphors with HCI techniques to minimize the cognitive load on the human brain. However, there are only a few recent reviews can be found for 3D metaphor-based data visualization. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of multidimensional data visualization by investigating the evolution of 3D metaphoric data visualization and interaction techniques to minimize the cognitive load on the human brain. Complying with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines this paper performs a systematic review of 3D metaphor-based data visualizations. This paper contributes to advancing the present state of knowledge in 3D metaphoric data visualization by critically analyzing the evolution of interactive 3D metaphors for information visualization. Further, this review identifies six main 3D metaphor categories and ten cognitive load minimizing techniques used in modern data visualization. In addition, this paper contributes three taxonomies by synthesizing the literature with a critical review of the strengths and weaknesses of metaphors. Finally, the paper discusses potential exploration paths for future research improvements.

Cite This Paper

A.S.K. Wijayawardena, Ruvan Abeysekera, M.W.P Maduranga, "A Systematic Review of 3D Metaphoric Information Visualization", International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science(IJMECS), Vol.15, No.1, pp. 73-93, 2023. DOI:10.5815/ijmecs.2023.01.06


[1]Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh and Md. H. Al Walid, “Data Analysis and Visualization of Continental Cancer Situation by Twitter Scraping,” IJMECS, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 23–31, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.5815/ijmecs.2019.07.03.
[2]A. Lugmayr, Y. J. Lim, J. Hollick, J. Khuu, and F. Chan, “Financial Data Visualization in 3D on Immersive Virtual Reality Displays: A Case-Study for Data Storytelling and Information Visualization of Financial Data of Australia’s Energy Sector,” in Enterprise Applications, Markets and Services in the Finance Industry, vol. 345, N. Mehandjiev and B. Saadouni, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 118–130. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-19037-8_8.
[3]B. Jena, “An Approach for Forecast Prediction in Data Analytics Field by Tableau Software,” IJIEEB, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 19–26, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.5815/ijieeb.2019.01.03.
[4]Computer Science Department, the University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan, M. Moshref, and R. Al-Sayyad, “Developing Ontology Approach Using Software Tool to Improve Data Visualization (Case Study: Computer Network),” IJMECS, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 32–39, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.5815/ijmecs.2019.04.04.
[5]P. R. Huttenlocher and others, “Morphometric study of human cerebral cortex development,” Brain development and cognition: A reader, pp. 117–128, 2002.
[6]S. T. Grossberg, Studies of mind and brain: Neural principles of learning, perception, development, cognition, and motor control, vol. 70. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
[7]R. More, R. Goudar, and R. More, “DataViz model: a novel approach towards big data analytics and visualization,” International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing (IJEM), vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 43–49, 2017.
[8]N. Kumar and J. Kumar, “Measurement of Cognitive Load in HCI Systems Using EEG Power Spectrum: An Experimental Study,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 84, pp. 70–78, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2016.04.068.
[9]Y.-N. Li, D.-J. Li, and K. Zhang, “The impact of metaphors on information visualization,” J Vis, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 487–504, Aug. 2017, doi: 10.1007/s12650-016-0371-9.
[10]J. L. Cybulski, S. Keller, and D. Saundage, “Interactive Exploration of Data with Visual Metaphors,” International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, vol. 25, no. 02, Art. no. 02, Mar. 2015, doi: 10.1142/S0218194015400082.
[11]S. Romano, N. Capece, U. Erra, G. Scanniello, and M. Lanza, “On the use of virtual reality in software visualization: The case of the city metaphor,” Information and Software Technology, vol. 114, pp. 92–106, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.infsof.2019.06.007.
[12] W. Pei, B. Guthier, and A. El Saddik, “The Solar System as a 3D Metaphor to Visualize User Interactions in a Social Network,” in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM), 2017, pp. 388–393.
[13]M. J. Page et al., “PRISMA 2020 explanation and elaboration: updated guidance and exemplars for reporting systematic reviews,” MetaArXiv, preprint, Sep. 2020. doi: 10.31222/osf.io/gwdhk.
[14]A. Perdana, A. Robb, F. Rohde, and others, “Does visualization matter? The role of interactive data visualization to make sense of information,” Australasian Journal of Information Systems, vol. 22, 2018.
[15]A. Schreiber and M. Misiak, “Visualizing Software Architectures in Virtual Reality with an Island Metaphor,” in Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: Interaction, Navigation, Visualization, Embodiment, and Simulation, vol. 10909, J. Y. C. Chen and G. Fragomeni, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018, pp. 168–182. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-91581-4_13.
[16]N. Capece, U. Erra, S. Romano, and G. Scanniello, “Visualising a Software System as a City Through Virtual Reality,” in Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Computer Graphics, vol. 10325, L. T. De Paolis, P. Bourdot, and A. Mongelli, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 319–327. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-60928-7_28.
[17]J. Vincur, P. Navrat, and I. Polasek, “Vr city: Software analysis in virtual reality environment,” in 2017 IEEE international conference on software quality, reliability and security companion (QRS-C), 2017, pp. 509–516.
[18]G. Balogh, T. Gergely, A. Beszédes, and T. Gyimóthy, “Using the city metaphor for visualizing test-related metrics,” in 2016 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution, and Reengineering (SANER), 2016, vol. 2, pp. 17–20.
[19]W. Hasselbring, A. Krause, and C. Zirkelbach, “ExplorViz: Research on software visualization, comprehension and collaboration,” Software Impacts, vol. 6, p. 100034, 2020.
[20]M. Weninger, L. Makor, and H. Mössenböck, “Memory Cities: Visualizing Heap Memory Evolution Using the Software City Metaphor,” in 2020 Working Conference on Software Visualization (VISSOFT), 2020, pp. 110–121. doi: 10.1109/VISSOFT51673.2020.00017.
[21]M. Weninger, L. Makor, and H. Mössenböck, “Memory leak visualization using evolving software cities,” in Proc. of the 10th Symp. on Software Performance (SSP), 2019, pp. 44–46.
[22]V. Dashuber and M. Philippsen, “Cloud Cost City: A Visualization of Cloud Costs using the City Metaphor.,” in VISIGRAPP (3: IVAPP), 2021, pp. 173–180.
[23]I. Buyuksalih, S. Bayburt, G. Buyuksalih, A. Baskaraca, H. Karim, and A. A. Rahman, “3D MODELLING AND VISUALIZATION BASED ON THE UNITY GAME ENGINE–ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES.,” ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, vol. 4, 2017.
[24]D. Atzberger et al., “Software Forest: A Visualization of Semantic Similarities in Source Code using a Tree Metaphor.,” in VISIGRAPP (3: IVAPP), 2021, pp. 112–122.
[25]R. Oberhauser, “ViSiTR: 3D Visualization for Code Visitation Trail Recommendations,” International Journal on Advances in Software Volume 10, Number 1 & 2, 2017, 2017.
[26]P. Khaloo, M. Maghoumi, E. Taranta, D. Bettner, and J. Laviola, “Code park: A new 3d code visualization tool,” in 2017 IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization (VISSOFT), 2017, pp. 43–53.
[27]S. Liu, D. Maljovec, B. Wang, P.-T. Bremer, and V. Pascucci, “Visualizing High-Dimensional Data: Advances in the Past Decade,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 23, no. 3, Art. no. 3, Mar. 2017, doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2016.2640960.
[28]D. Presnov and A. Kolb, “Glyph from Icon -- Automated Generation of Metaphoric Glyphs.” arXiv, Jun. 09, 2022. Accessed: Sep. 07, 2022. [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/2206.05061
[29]D. Rees, R. S. Laramee, P. Brookes, T. D’Cruze, G. A. Smith, and A. Miah, “AgentVis: Visual Analysis of Agent Behavior withHierarchical Glyphs,” IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 2020.
[30]D. Kammer et al., “Glyphboard: Visual exploration of high-dimensional data combining glyphs with dimensionality reduction,” IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1661–1671, 2020.
[31]J. Fuchs, P. Isenberg, A. Bezerianos, and D. Keim, “A systematic review of experimental studies on data glyphs,” IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1863–1879, 2016.
[32]R. Sicat et al., “Dxr: A toolkit for building immersive data visualizations,” IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 715–725, 2018.
[33]J. A. Wagner Filho, C. M. D. S. Freitas, and L. Nedel, “VirtualDesk: A comfortable and efficient immersive information visualization approach,” in Computer Graphics Forum, 2018, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 415–426.
[34]J. A. Wagner Filho, W. Stuerzlinger, and L. Nedel, “Evaluating an Immersive Space-Time Cube Geovisualization for Intuitive Trajectory Data Exploration,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 26, no. 1, Art. no. 1, 2019.
[35]B. Bach, P. Dragicevic, D. Archambault, C. Hurter, and S. Carpendale, “A review of temporal data visualizations based on space-time cube operations,” 2014.
[36]Y. Yang, T. Dwyer, K. Marriott, B. Jenny, and S. Goodwin, “Tilt Map: Interactive Transitions Between Choropleth Map, Prism Map and Bar Chart in Immersive Environments,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2020.
[37]Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, and S. Parthasarathy, “Visualizing attributed graphs via terrain metaphor,” in Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 2017, pp. 1325–1334.
[38]L. Sancho-Chavarría and E. Mata-Montero, “A 3D Approach for the Visualization and Edition of Hierarchies: The Case of Biological Taxonomies,” in 2018 IEEE 38th Central America and Panama Convention (CONCAPAN XXXVIII), 2018, pp. 1–6.
[39]O.-M. Latvala et al., “Visualizing network events in a muggle friendly way,” in 2017 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA), 2017, pp. 1–4.
[40]V. L. Averbukh, “Semiotic analysis of computer visualization,” Interdisciplinary Approaches to Semiotics. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, pp. 97–133, 2017.
[41]B. Teles, P. Mariano, and P. Santana, “Game-Like 3D Visualisation of Air Quality Data,” Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 54, 2020.
[42]J. Happa, T. Bashford-Rogers, I. Agrafiotis, M. Goldsmith, and S. Creese, “Anomaly Detection Using Pattern-of-Life Visual Metaphors,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 154018–154034, 2019.
[43]M. Sousa, D. Mendes, S. Paulo, N. Matela, J. Jorge, and D. S. Lopes, “Vrrrroom: Virtual reality for radiologists in the reading room,” in Proceedings of the 2017 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems, 2017, pp. 4057–4062.
[44]F. Carroll, A. Chakof, and P. Legg, “What makes for effective visualisation in cyber situational awareness for non-expert users?,” in 2019 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA), 2019, pp. 1–8.
[45]R. Hänsch and O. Hellwich, “Performance Assessment and Interpretation of Random Forests by Three-dimensional Visualizations.,” in IVAPP, 2015, pp. 149–156.
[46]M. Yang, H. Xu, D. Zhu, and H. Chen, “Visualizing the random forest by 3d techniques,” in Internet of Things, Springer, 2012, pp. 639–645.
[47]Y. Zhonghua and W. Lingda, “3D-Parallel Coordinates: Visualization for time varying multidimensional data,” in 2016 7th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS), 2016, pp. 655–658.
[48]K. Akram Hassan, N. Ronnberg, C. Forsell, M. Cooper, and J. Johansson, “A Study on 2D and 3D Parallel Coordinates for Pattern Identification in Temporal Multivariate Data,” in 2019 23rd International Conference Information Visualisation (IV), Paris, France, Jul. 2019, pp. 145–150. doi: 10.1109/IV.2019.00033.
[49]S. Alwajidi and L. Yang, “3D Parallel Coordinates for Multidimensional Data Cube Exploration,” in Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Computing and Big Data - ICCBD ’18, Charleston, SC, USA, 2018, pp. 23–27. doi: 10.1145/3277104.3277106.
[50]B. Bach, E. Pietriga, and J.-D. Fekete, “Visualizing dynamic networks with matrix cubes,” in Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2014, pp. 877–886.
[51]Y. Yang, T. Dwyer, B. Jenny, K. Marriott, M. Cordeil, and H. Chen, “Origin-destination flow maps in immersive environments,” IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 693–703, 2018.
[52]D. Englmeier, I. Schönewald, A. Butz, and T. Höllerer, “Feel the globe: Enhancing the perception of immersive spherical visualizations with tangible proxies,” in 2019 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR), 2019, pp. 1693–1698.
[53]X. Tong, C. Li, and H.-W. Shen, “Glyphlens: View-dependent occlusion management in the interactive glyph visualization,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 891–900, 2016.
[54]R. Borgo et al., “Glyph-based Visualization: Foundations, Design Guidelines, Techniques and Applications.,” in Eurographics (State of the Art Reports), 2013, pp. 39–63.
[55]J. Fuchs, D. Jäckle, N. Weiler, and T. Schreck, “Leaf glyphs: Story telling and data analysis using environmental data glyph metaphors,” in International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics, 2015, pp. 123–143.
[56]B. Wang, T. Zhang, Z. Chang, T. Ristaniemi, and G. Liu, “3D matrix-based visualization system of association rules,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT), 2017, pp. 357–362.
[57]K. Marriott et al., “Immersive analytics: Time to reconsider the value of 3d for information visualisation,” in Immersive analytics, Springer, 2018, pp. 25–55.
[58]A. Drogemuller, A. Cunningham, J. Walsh, W. Ross, and B. H. Thomas, “VRige: exploring social network interactions in immersive virtual environments,” 2017.
[59]J. Sorger, M. Waldner, W. Knecht, and A. Arleo, “Immersive Analytics of Large Dynamic Networks via Overview and Detail Navigation,” in 2019 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR), 2019, pp. 144–1447. doi: 10.1109/AIVR46125.2019.00030.
[60]D. Kruzhinskaia, F. Ganglberger, J. Kaczanowska, W. Haubensak, and K. Bühler, “Interactive 3D-Visualization of Brain Spatial Networks”.
[61]Y. Chen, Z. Guan, R. Zhang, X. Du, and Y. Wang, “A survey on visualization approaches for exploring association relationships in graph data,” Journal of Visualization, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 625–639, 2019.
[62]A. Lécuyer, “Playing with Senses in VR: Alternate Perceptions Combining Vision and Touch,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2017, doi: 10.1109/MCG.2017.14.
[63]Y. Zhang and A. Lugmayr, “Designing a user-centered interactive data-storytelling framework,” in Proceedings of the 31st Australian Conference on Human-Computer-Interaction, 2019, pp. 428–432.
[64]H. Würfel, M. Trapp, D. Limberger, and J. Döllner, “Natural Phenomena as Metaphors for Visualization of Trend Data in Interactive Software Maps.,” in CGVC, 2015, pp. 69–76.
[65]A. K. Al-Awami et al., “Neurolines: a subway map metaphor for visualizing nanoscale neuronal connectivity,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2369–2378, 2014.
[66]P. Mindek and P. Kapec, “Graph visualization using the metaphor of biological neural nets,” in Proceedings of the 27th Spring Conference on Computer Graphics, 2011, pp. 141–148.
[67]E. Kleiberg, H. Van de Wetering, and J. J. Van Wijk, “Botanical visualization of huge hierarchies,” in IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, 2001. INFOVIS 2001., 2001, pp. 87–94.
[68]N. Vidakis, D. Akoumianakis, and C. Katimeri, “Articulating a 3D metaphor for displaying and exploring vacation packages,” 3D Research, vol. 3, no. 1, Art. no. 1, Mar. 2012, doi: 10.1007/3DRes.01(2012)6.
[69]G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, Metaphors we live by. University of Chicago press, 2008.
[70]J. Lee, M. Kim, and J. Kim, “RoleVR: Multi-experience in immersive virtual reality between co-located HMD and non-HMD users,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 979–1005, 2020.
[71]N. Sidorakis, G. A. Koulieris, and K. Mania, “Binocular eye-tracking for the control of a 3D immersive multimedia user interface,” in 2015 IEEE 1St workshop on everyday virtual reality (WEVR), 2015, pp. 15–18.
[72]A. Kar and P. Corcoran, “A review and analysis of eye-gaze estimation systems, algorithms and performance evaluation methods in consumer platforms,” IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 16495–16519, 2017.
[73]S. Han and J. Kim, “A study on immersion of hand interaction for mobile platform virtual reality contents,” Symmetry, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 22, 2017.
[74]A. Srinivasan and J. Stasko, “Orko: Facilitating multimodal interaction for visual exploration and analysis of networks,” IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 511–521, 2017.
[75]R. GROH, T. GÜNTHER, and T. GRÜNDER, “Towards Visual Exploration in Glyph-based Visualizations by Using Landscape Metaphors,” 2018.
[76]M. El Meseery and O. Hoeber, “Geo-Coordinated Parallel Coordinates (GCPC): Field trial studies of environmental data analysis,” Visual Informatics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 111–124, 2018.
[77]Y. Yang, B. Jenny, T. Dwyer, K. Marriott, H. Chen, and M. Cordeil, “Maps and globes in virtual reality,” in Computer Graphics Forum, 2018, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 427–438.
[78]M. Patel and D. H. Laidlaw, “Visualization of 3D stress tensor fields using superquadric glyphs on displacement streamlines,” IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 3264–3276, 2020.
[79]D. Limberger, W. Scheibel, J. Döllner, and M. Trapp, “Advanced visual metaphors and techniques for software maps,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction, 2019, pp. 1–8.
[80]W. Chen, L. Shi, and W. Chen, “A survey of macroscopic brain network visualization technology,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 889–899, 2018.
[81]Y.-J. Huang, T. Fujiwara, Y.-X. Lin, W.-C. Lin, and K.-L. Ma, “A gesture system for graph visualization in virtual reality environments,” in 2017 ieee pacific visualization symposium (pacificvis), 2017, pp. 41–45.
[82]Y.-N. Li, D.-J. Li, and K. Zhang, “Metaphoric Transfer Effect in Information Visualization Using Glyphs,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction - VINCI ’15, Tokyo, AA, Japan, 2015, pp. 121–130. doi: 10.1145/2801040.2801062.
[83]H. Müller, R. Reihs, K. Zatloukal, and A. Holzinger, “Analysis of biomedical data with multilevel glyphs,” BMC bioinformatics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1–12, 2014.
[84]A. Rocha, R. C. R. Mota, H. Hamdi, U. R. Alim, and M. Costa Sousa, “Illustrative multivariate visualization for geological modelling,” in Computer Graphics Forum, 2018, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 465–477.
[85]T. Lei, N. Ni, Q. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Aesthetic Experimental Study on Information Visualization Design Under the Background of Big Data,” in International Conference of Design, User Experience, and Usability, 2018, pp. 218–226.
[86]Z. G. Török and Á. Török, “Cognitive Data Visualization—A New Field with a Long History,” in Cognitive Infocommunications, Theory and Applications, vol. 13, R. Klempous, J. Nikodem, and P. Z. Baranyi, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 49–77. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95996-2_3.
[87]K. Pfeuffer, B. Mayer, D. Mardanbegi, and H. Gellersen, “Gaze+ pinch interaction in virtual reality,” in Proceedings of the 5th symposium on spatial user interaction, 2017, pp. 99–108.
[88]L. Zhao, Y. Liu, D. Ye, Z. Ma, and W. Song, “Implementation and evaluation of touch-based interaction using electrovibration haptic feedback in virtual environments,” in 2020 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR), 2020, pp. 239–247.
[89]M. J. Rodríguez-Fórtiz et al., “Serious games for the cognitive stimulation of elderly people,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Serious Games and Applications for Health (SeGAH), 2016, pp. 1–7.
[90]H. Kukka, M. Pakanen, M. Badri, and T. Ojala, “Immersive street-level social media in the 3d virtual city: Anticipated user experience and conceptual development,” in Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, 2017, pp. 2422–2435.
[91]H. Wang, X. Chen, N. Polys, and P. Sforza, “A Web3D forest geo-visualization and user interface evaluation,” in Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on 3D Web Technology, 2017, pp. 1–9.
[92]A. Nanda, S. Gupta, and M. Vijrania, “A Comprehensive Survey of OLAP: Recent Trends,” in 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA), 2019, pp. 425–430.
[93]U. Erra, D. Malandrino, and L. Pepe, “A methodological evaluation of natural user interfaces for immersive 3D Graph explorations,” Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, vol. 44, pp. 13–27, 2018.
[94]R. Rau, C. Bohk-Ewald, M. M. MuszyƄska, and J. W. Vaupel, “Introduction: Why Do We Visualize Data and What Is This Book About?,” in Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram, Springer, 2018, pp. 1–4.
[95]S. Liu, W. Cui, Y. Wu, and M. Liu, “A survey on information visualization: recent advances and challenges,” The Visual Computer, vol. 30, no. 12, Art. no. 12, Dec. 2014, doi: 10.1007/s00371-013-0892-3.
[96]B. Lee, X. Hu, M. Cordeil, A. Prouzeau, B. Jenny, and T. Dwyer, “Shared surfaces and spaces: Collaborative data visualisation in a co-located immersive environment,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1171–1181, 2020.
[97]R. Sihombing and V. Coors, “LINKING 3D BUILDING MODELS, MAPS AND ENERGY-RELATED DATA IN A WEB-BASED VISUALIZATION SYSTEM.,” ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, vol. 4, 2018.
[98]J. Kunkel, B. Loepp, and J. Ziegler, “A 3D item space visualization for presenting and manipulating user preferences in collaborative filtering,” in Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on intelligent user interfaces, 2017, pp. 3–15.
[99]R. Podor et al., “3D-SEM height maps series to monitor materials corrosion and dissolution,” Materials Characterization, vol. 150, pp. 220–228, 2019.
[100]M. Thöny, R. Schnürer, R. Sieber, L. Hurni, and R. Pajarola, “Storytelling in interactive 3D geographic visualization systems,” ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 123, 2018.
[101]M. Herick, V. Molchanov, and L. Linsen, “Temporally Coherent Topological Landscapes for Time-varying Scalar Fields.,” in VISIGRAPP (3: IVAPP), 2020, pp. 54–61.
[102]G. Weber, P.-T. Bremer, and V. Pascucci, “Topological landscapes: A terrain metaphor for scientific data,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1416–1423, 2007.
[103]M. Bouloukakis, N. Partarakis, I. Drossis, M. Kalaitzakis, and C. Stephanidis, “Virtual reality for smart city visualization and monitoring,” in Mediterranean Cities and Island Communities, Springer, 2019, pp. 1–18.
[104]K. Ogami, R. G. Kula, H. Hata, T. Ishio, and K. Matsumoto, “Using high-rising cities to visualize performance in real-time,” in 2017 IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization (VISSOFT), 2017, pp. 33–42.
[105]U. Erra and G. Scanniello, “Towards the visualization of software systems as 3D forests: the codetrees environment,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2012, pp. 981–988.
[106]T. Schneider, Y. Tymchuk, R. Salgado, and A. Bergel, “Cuboidmatrix: Exploring dynamic structural connections in software components using space-time cube,” in 2016 IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization (VISSOFT), 2016, pp. 116–125.
[107]J. Rekimoto and M. Green, “The information cube: Using transparency in 3d information visualization,” in Proceedings of the Third Annual Workshop on Information Technologies & Systems (WITS’93), 1993, pp. 125–132.
[108]T. Gerrits, C. Rössl, and H. Theisel, “Glyphs for general second-order 2d and 3d tensors,” IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 980–989, 2016.
[109]P. Gaucher, F. Argelaguet, J. Royan, and A. Lécuyer, “A novel 3D carousel based on pseudo-haptic feedback and gestural interaction for virtual showcasing,” in 2013 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 2013, pp. 55–58.
[110]S. S. Sundar, S. Bellur, J. Oh, and H. Jia, “Calls for interaction: The more the better? User experience of 3D carousel and additional interaction techniques,” in IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 2011, pp. 487–490.
[111]S. Wang, M. Poturalski, and D. Vronay, “Designing a generalized 3D carousel view,” in CHI’05 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2005, pp. 2017–2020.
[112]C. Björkskog, G. Jacucci, B. Lorentin, and L. Gamberini, “Mobile implementation of a web 3D carousel with touch input,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, 2009, p. 48.
[113]M. Pakanen, L. Arhippainen, and S. Hickey, “Studying Four 3D GUI Metaphors in Virtual Environment in Tablet Context,” p. 6, 2013.
[114]X. Fang, C. Jacquemin, and F. Vernier, “Visualization of the Search Results of the Semantic Web Search Engines.,” 2008.
[115]X. Wei et al., “A Spiral-helix (3D) tubing array that ensures ultrahigh-throughput single-cell sampling,” Analytical chemistry, vol. 91, no. 24, pp. 15826–15832, 2019.
[116]G. Wang, H. Laga, N. Xie, J. Jia, and H. Tabia, “The shape space of 3D botanical tree models,” ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2018.
[117]F. Xiang et al., “Enhanced family tree: evolving research and expression,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2020 Art Gallery, 2020, pp. 367–373.