Cover page and Table of Contents: PDF (size: 568KB)
Full Text (PDF, 568KB), PP.13-27
Views: 0 Downloads: 0
Creativity, Divergent Thinking, Digital Natives, Mobile App, Education
This paper presents the Test of Creativity and Divergent Thinking-Digital (TCD-D) mobile application, a digital version of the Williams Test for assessing creativity through graphic production. The Test of Creativity and Divergent Thinking-Digital is a new, simple and intuitive mobile application developed by a team of psychologists and computer scientists to remain faithful to the paper version of the test but to provide a faster assessment of divergent thinking. In fact, creativity assessment tests are currently still administered in paper form, which requires a lot of time and human resources for scoring, especially when administered to large samples, as is the case in educational studies. Several digital prototypes of creativity assessment instruments have been developed over the past decade, some of which are derived from paper instruments and some of which are completely new. Of all these attempts, no one has yet worked on a digital version of the Williams Test of Creativity and Divergent Thinking, although this instrument is widely used in Europe and Asia. Moreover, of all the prototypes of digital tools in the literature, none has been developed as a mobile app for tablets, a tool very close to the younger generation. The app was developed to provide a quicker and more contemporary assessment that accommodates the technological interests of digital natives through the use of touch in drawing and adds some additional indices to those of the paper tool for assessing fluency, flexibility, originality and creative elaboration. The application for Android tablets speeds up the assessment of divergent thinking and supports the monitoring of creative potential in educational and learning contexts. The paper discusses how the application works, the preferences and opinions of the students who tested it, and the future developments planned for the implementation of the application.
Aurelia De Lorenzo, Alessandro Nasso, Viviana Bono, Emanuela Rabaglietti, "Introducing TCD-D for Creativity Assessment: A Mobile App for Educational Contexts", International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science(IJMECS), Vol.15, No.1, pp. 13-27, 2023. DOI:10.5815/ijmecs.2023.01.02
Runco, M. A., & Jaeger, G. J. (2012). The standard definition of creativity. Creativity research journal, 24(1), 92-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2012.650092
Kaufman, J. C., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.). (2010). The Cambridge handbook of creativity. Cambridge University Press
Feldman, D. H., & Benjamin, A. C. (2006). Creativity and education: An American retrospective. Cambridge Journal of Education, 36(3), 319-336. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057640600865819
Saravanakumar, A. R. (2020). Life skill education for creative and productive citizens. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(9), 554-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.09.110
Van Laar, E., Van Deursen, A. J., Van Dijk, J. A., & De Haan, J. (2017). The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review. Computers in human behavior, 72, 577-588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.010
Moya, S., & Camacho, M. (2021a). Developing a Framework for Mobile Learning Adoption and Sustainable Development. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-021-09537-y
Henriksen, D., Henderson, M., Creely, E., Ceretkova, S., Černochová, M., Sendova, E., ... & Tienken, C. H. (2018). Creativity and technology in education: An international perspective. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 23(3), 409-424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-018-9380-1
Bikanga Ada, M. (2021). Evaluation of a Mobile Web Application for Assessment Feedback. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-021-09575-6
Esteve, F. (2015). La competencia digital docente: análisis de la autopercepción y evaluación del desempeño de los estudiantes universitarios de educación por medio de un entorno. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/tesis?codigo=97673
Moya, S., & Camacho, M. (2021b). Identifying the key success factors for the adoption of mobile learning. Education and Information Technologies, 26(4), 3917-3945. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10447-w
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 2: Do they really think differently?. On the horizon. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424843
Guo, J. (2019). Web-based creativity assessment system that collects both verbal and figural responses: Its problems and potentials. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 9(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2019.9.1.1168
Guo, J. (2016). The development of an online divergent thinking test. https://opencommons.uconn.edu/dissertations/1304
Kwon, M., Goetz, E. T., & Zellner, R. D. (1998). Developing a computer‐based TTCT: Promises and problems. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 32(2), 96-106. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1998.tb00809.x
Zabramski, S., Ivanova, V., Yang, G., Gadima, N., & Leepraphantkul, R. (2013, June). The effects of GUI on users' creative performance in computerized drawing. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation (pp. 1-10) https://doi.org/10.1145/2500342.2500360
Pásztor, A., Molnár, G., & Csapó, B. (2015). Technology-based assessment of creativity in educational context: the case of divergent thinking and its relation to mathematical achievement. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 18, 32-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2015.05.004
Lau, S., & Cheung, P. C. (2010). Creativity assessment: Comparability of the electronic and paper-and-pencil versions of the Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 5(3), 101-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2010.09.004
Palaniappan, A. K. (2012). Web-based creativity assessment system. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 2(3), 255. http://www.ijiet.org/papers/123-K20001.pdf
Torrance, E. P. (1974). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Norms-Technical Manual Research Edition-Verbal Tests, Forms A and B- Figural Tests, Forms A and B. Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press.
Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1965-35011-000
Zabramski, S., & Neelakannan, S. (2011, October). Paper equals screen: a comparison of a pen-based figural creativity test in
Putra, R. E., Ekohariadi, E., Nuryana, I. K., & Anistyasari, Y. (2022, January). Development of Automated Assessment Tool to Measure Student Creativity in Computer Programming. In Eighth Southeast Asia Design Research (SEA-DR) & the Second Science, Technology, Education, Arts, Culture, and Humanity (STEACH) International Conference (SEADR-STEACH 2021) (pp. 92-97). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.211229.015
Williams, F. E. (1993). Creativity Assessment Packet: CAP. Pro-Ed. https://www.proedinc.com/Products/Default.aspx?bookid=6565&bCategory=LDPOP!GT
Cropley, D. H., & Marrone, R. L. (2022). Automated scoring of figural creativity using a convolutional neural network. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000510
Petko, D., Schmid, R., Müller, L., & Hielscher, M. (2019). Metapholio: A mobile app for supporting collaborative note taking and reflection in teacher education. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 24(4), 699-710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-019-09398-6
Sica, L. S., Ragozini, G., Di Palma, T., & Aleni Sestito, L. (2019). Creativity as identity skill? Late adolescents' management of identity, complexity and risk‐taking. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 53(4), 457-471. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.221
Qian, M., Plucker, J. A., & Shen, J. (2010). A model of Chinese adolescents' creative personality. Creativity Research Journal, 22(1), 62-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400410903579585
Williams, F. (1994). TCD. Test della creatività e del pensiero divergente. Edizioni Erickson.
Kivunja, C. (2014). Theoretical perspectives of how digital natives learn. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(1), 94-109. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1067467
Barak, M. (2018). Are digital natives open to change? Examining flexible thinking and resistance to change. Computers & Education, 121, 115-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.01.016
Prensky, M., & Berry, B. D. (2001). Do they really think differently. On the horizon, 9(6), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424843
Kivunja, C. (2014). Theoretical perspectives of how digital natives learn. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(1), 94-109. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1067467
Mellow, P. (2005). The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. In Ascilite (Vol. 1, pp. 469-476).
Shabalina, O., Mozelius, P., Vorobkalov, P., Malliarakis, C., & Tomos, F. (2015, July). Creativity in digital pedagogy and game-based learning techniques; theoretical aspects, techniques and case studies. In 2015 6th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications (IISA) (pp. 1-6). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/IISA.2015.7387963
Mishra, P. (2012). Rethinking technology & creativity in the 21st century: Crayons are the future. TechTrends, 56(5), 13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-012-0594-0
Mishra, P., Yadav, A., & Deep-Play Research Group. (2013). Rethinking technology & creativity in the 21st century. TechTrends, 57(3), 10-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-013-0655-z
Lubart, T. I. (2001). Models of the creative process: Past, present and future. Creativity research journal, 13(3-4), 295-308. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326934CRJ1334_07
Reiter-Palmon, R., Forthmann, B., & Barbot, B. (2019). Scoring divergent thinking tests: A review and systematic framework. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 13(2), 144. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000227
Runco, M. A., & Acar, S. (2012). Divergent thinking as an indicator of creative potential. Creativity research journal, 24(1), 66-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2012.652929
Guilford, J. P. (1962). Potentiality for creativity. Gifted Child Quarterly, 6(3), 87-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698626200600307
Getzels, J. W., & Jackson, P. W. (1962). Creativity and intelligence: Explorations with gifted students. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1962-07802-000
Kim, K. H., & Zabelina, D. (2015). Cultural bias in assessment: Can creativity assessment help?. The International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 6(2).
Guo, Y., Lin, S., Guo, J., Lu, Z. L., & Shangguan, C. (2021). Cross-cultural measurement invariance of divergent thinking measures. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41, 100852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100852
Baer, J. (2011). How divergent thinking tests mislead us: Are the Torrance Tests still relevant in the 21st century? The Division 10 debate. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5(4), 309-313. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025210
Kim, K. H. (2011). The creativity crisis: The decrease in creative thinking scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity research journal, 23(4), 285-295. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2011.627805
Yarbrough, N. D. (2016). Assessment of creative thinking across cultures using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT): translation and validity Issues. Creativity Research Journal, 28(2), 154-164. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2016.1162571
Bart, W. M., Hokanson, B., & Can, I. (2017). An investigation of the factor structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 17(2). https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2017.2.0051
Wang, H. H., & Deng, X. (2022). The Bridging Role of Goals between Affective Traits and Positive Creativity. Education Sciences, 12(2), 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12020144
Fan, H., Ge, Y., & Wilkinson, R. (2021). Humor Style and Creativity Tendency of Senior High School Students of Tujia Ethnic Group in China. Advances in Applied Sociology, 11(4), 141-157. https://doi.org/10.4236/aasoci.2021.114011
Liu, H. Y., Chang, C. C., Wang, I. T., & Chao, S. Y. (2020). The association between creativity, creative components of personality, and innovation among Taiwanese nursing students. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 35, 100629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100629
Antonietti, A., & Cornoldi, C. (2006). Creativity in Italy. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The International Handbook of Creativity (pp. 124–166). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511818240.006
De Caroli, M. E., & Sagone, E. (2009). Creative thinking and Big Five factors of personality measured in Italian schoolchildren. Psychological reports, 105(3), 791-803. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.105.3.791-803
Lucchiari, C., Sala, P. M., & Vanutelli, M. E. (2019). The effects of a cognitive pathway to promote class creative thinking. An experimental study on Italian primary school students. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 31, 156-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2018.12.002
Chuang, T. Y., Zhi-Feng Liu, E., & Shiu, W. Y. (2015). Game-based creativity assessment system: the application of fuzzy theory. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 74(21), 9141-9155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-014-2070-7
Kovalkov, A., Paaßen, B., Segal, A., Pinkwart, N., & Gal, K. (2021). Automatic Creativity Measurement in Scratch Programs Across Modalities. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 14(6), 740-753.
Wu, H., & Molnár, G. (2018). Computer-based assessment of Chinese students’ component skills of problem solving: a pilot study. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 8(5), 381-386. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2018.8.5.1067
Hass, R. W. (2015). Feasibility of online divergent thinking assessment. Computers in Human Behavior, 46, 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.056
Davis, A. L. (2013). Using instructional design principles to develop effective information literacy instruction: The ADDIE model. College & Research Libraries News, 74(4), 205-207.
Kwiatkowski, J., Vartanian, O., & Martindale, C. (1999). Creativity and speed of mental processing. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 17(2), 187-196. https://doi.org/10.2190/2Q5D-TY7X-37QE-2RY2
Glăveanu, V. P. (2014). Revisiting the “art bias” in lay conceptions of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 26(1), 11-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2014.873656
Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary versus inhibitory cognitive tasks. Personality and individual differences, 44(6), 1382-1390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.12.006
Fabry, J. J., & Bertinetti, J. F. (1990). A construct validation study of the human figure drawing test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70(2), 465-466. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1922.214.171.1245
Agrell, B., & Dehlin, O. (1998). The clock-drawing test. Age and ageing, 27(3), 399-404. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afs149
Paganini‐Hill, A., Clark, L. J., Henderson, V. W., & Birge, S. J. (2001). Clock drawing: analysis in a retirement community. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49(7), 941-947. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49185.x
McElhaney, M. (1969). Clinical psychological assessment of the human figure drawing. CC Thomas.
Bodwin, R. F., & Bruck, M. (1960). The adaptation and validation of the Draw-A-Person Test as a measure of self concept. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16(4), 427–429. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(196010)16:4<427::AID-JCLP2270160428>3.0.CO;2-H
Schmidgall, S. P., Eitel, A., & Scheiter, K. (2019). Why do learners who draw perform well? Investigating the role of visualization, generation and externalization in learner-generated drawing. Learning and Instruction, 60, 138-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.01.006
Brooke, J. (2013). SUS: A retrospective. Journal of Usability Studies, 8(2), 29–40. https://uxpajournal.org/sus-a-retrospective/
HINTON, P. R., BROWNLOW, C., MCMURRAY, I. & COZENS, B. 2004. SPSS explained, East Sussex, England, Routledge Inc.
Bolarinwa, O. A. (2015). Principles and methods of validity and reliability testing of questionnaires used in social and health science researches. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 22(4), 195.
Sauro, J., & Lewis, J. R. (2011). When designing usability questionnaires, does it hurt to be positive? In Proceedings of CHI 2011 (pp. 2215–2223). Vancouver, Canada: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979266
Lewis, J. R., & Sauro, J. (2009, July). The factor structure of the system usability scale. In International conference on human centered design (pp. 94-103). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02806-9_12
Sauro, J., & Lewis, J. R. (2016). Quantifying the user experience: Practical statistics for user research, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Morgan-Kaufmann.