Improving the Security of Spatial Domain Based Digital Image Watermarking using Chaotic Map and Cellular Automation

Full Text (PDF, 1295KB), PP.51-58

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Chandan Saha 1,* Md. Foisal Hossain 1 B. M. Shahnewaz Abdullah 1

1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET) Khulna-9203, Bangladesh

* Corresponding author.


Received: 6 Oct. 2015 / Revised: 5 Nov. 2015 / Accepted: 28 Nov. 2015 / Published: 8 Jan. 2016

Index Terms

Logistic map, game of life, cellular automation, scaling factor


The security of digital image watermarking is improved by scrambling the watermark using different chaotic maps or cellular automata in such a way that an unauthorized person can't recover the watermark without the secret keys. In this proposed scheme three secret keys are used in which one key is used to make the watermark chaotic and other two keys are used for scrambling the cover image. In this scheme the cover image is scrambled by using the game of life cellular automation and the watermark is made chaotic by performing the X-OR operation between the binary watermark and logistic map. Although it increases the computational complexities, but the security of watermarking is improved by involving three secret keys. In addition, for ensuring imperceptibility and making the watermarking robust, a mask of size 3×3 is run over the scrambled cover image in which one bit of chaotic watermark is embedded in 3×3 block of cover image by modifying one of the neighbor pixels. Then the scrambled modified cover image is descrambled using game of life cellular automation for obtaining watermarked image. This proposed combined chaotic and cellular automata based watermarking scheme is compared with existing chaotic based watermarking schemes and gives satisfactory values of Peak Signal to Noise (PSNR), Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Normalized Correlation (NC).

Cite This Paper

Chandan Saha, Md. Foisal Hossain, B. M. Shahnewaz Abdullah,"Improving the Security of Spatial Domain Based Digital Image Watermarking using Chaotic Map and Cellular Automation", International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP), Vol.8, No.1, pp.51-58, 2016. DOI: 10.5815/ijigsp.2016.01.06


[1]T. Minamoto and R. Ohura, "A blind digital image watermarking method based on the dyadic wavelet transform and interval arithmetic," Sci. Direct Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computation, pp-306-319, 2014.

[2]Chandra M. B. and Srinivas K. S., "Robust multiple image watermarking scheme using Discrete Cosine Transform with multiple descriptions," International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 1793–8201, 2009.

[3]B.L. Gunjal and R.R. Manthalkar, "Discrete Wavelet Transform based strongly robust watermarking scheme for information hiding in digital images," Third Int. Conf. Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology. India, pp. 124-129, Nov 2010.

[4]R.-J. Chen and J.-L. Lai, ''Image security system using recursive cellular automata substitution,'' Pattern Recognition, vol. 40, no. 5, 2007, pp. 1621-1631.

[5]X. Wu, Z.-H. Guan and Z. Wu, "A chaos based robust spatial domain watermarking algorithm", Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2007, vol. 4492, pp. 113-119, 2007.

[6]S. Rawat, B. Raman. "A chaotic system based fragile watermarking scheme for image tamper detection", Sci. Direct International Journal of Electronics and Communication, vol. 65, pp. 840-847, 2011.

[7]S.-H. Liu, H.-X. Yao, W. and Y.-L. Liu, "An image fragile watermark scheme based on chaotic image pattern and pixel pattern", Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 185, pp. 869–882, 2007.

[8]Z. Wenyin and F. Shih, "Semi fragile spatial watermarking based on local binary pattern operators", Optics Communications, vol. 284, pp. 3904–3912, 2011.

[9]Z. Dawei, C. Guanrong and L. Wenbo, "A chaos based robust wavelet domain watermarking algorithm", Chaos, Solutions & Fractals, vol. 22, pp. 47–54, 2004.

[10]G. Z. Yantao, M. Yunfei and L. Zhiquan, "A robust chaos based DCT domain watermarking algorithm", International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 935 - 938, 2008.

[11]G. Rosline, S. Maruthuperumal, "Normalized image watermarking scheme using chaotic system", International Journal of Information & Network Security, vol.1, no.4, pp. 255-264, October 2012.

[12]E. Chrysochos, V. Fotopoulos, and A. N. Skodras, "Robust watermarking of digital images based on chaotic mapping and DCT", 16th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2008), Lausanne, Switzerland, August 25-29, 2008, copyright by EURASIP.

[13]J. Song, J. Song and Y. Bao, "A blind digital watermark method based on SVD and chaos", Procedia Engineering, vol. 29, pp. 285–289, 2012.

[14]A. Dalhoum, M. MAhafzah, A. Awwad, I. Aldamari, A. Oterga and M. Alfonseca "Digital image scrambling using 2D cellular automata", 14th IEEE international Symposium on Multimedia, 10-12 December 2012, Irvine, CA,US.

[15]N. M. Makbol and B. E. Khoo, "A new robust and secure digital image watermarking scheme based on the integer wavelet transform and singular value decomposition," Digital Signal Processing, vol. 33, pp. 134–147, 2014.

[16]S.Maruthuperumal and G.Rosline Nesa Kumari, "Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content Authentication for Watermarking," International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing (IJIGSP), Vol.5, No.2, pp. 25-30, 2013.