Fingerprint Authentication in Digital Watermarking Using YCbCr Colour Space & 2D Walsh Code

Full Text (PDF, 581KB), PP.35-41

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


B P Mishra 1,* P Das 1 H N Pratihari 2

1. Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Sarang, India

2. Calcutta Institute of Technology, Westbengal, India

* Corresponding author.


Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 10 Jul. 2015 / Accepted: 21 Aug. 2015 / Published: 8 Oct. 2015

Index Terms

Discrete Cosine Transform, Digital Watermarking, 2-D Walsh code, YCbCr colour space, Authentication matching etc


During the recent development in image manipulating software and vast use of Internet, it is now becomes very difficult to protect the images that are precious and need to be secured so that they will survive against several image modification attacks. This paper represents a new technique to produce robust and efficient Twin blind digital Watermarking with the use of 2-D Walsh code and Discrete Cosine transform. Authentication matching process is introduced during the extraction process to provide extra security to the Host image. Both the Watermarks are embedded into host image through Walsh Code conversion. In this technique, the Embedding and extraction of Watermark is simpler than the other transform previously used. The proposed algorithm uses the YCbCr colour elements of the colour images in DCT province with low frequency components. During the first step the Principal Watermark i.e Hand written signature is embedded through 2-D Walsh coding and then the resultant watermark i.e Biometric fingerprint is embedded to the first Watermarked image through 2-D Walsh coding. The De-watermarking is dawn by checking the Authentication through Biometric fingerprint matching method. The technique is accessed by analyzing various performance parameters like SSIM, PSNR and NC. Further, the evaluation is made through various attacks by using StirMark tool. It was observed from the result that, by utilizing 2-D Walsh coding technique, better robustness is maintained and the proposed technique survived against various attacks such as JPEG compression, median, noise etc.

Cite This Paper

B P Mishra, P Das, H N Pratihari,"Fingerprint Authentication in Digital Watermarking Using YCbCr Colour Space & 2D Walsh Code", IJIGSP, vol.7, no.11, pp.35-41, 2015. DOI: 10.5815/ijigsp.2015.11.05


[1]Er-Hsien Fu, "Literature Survey on Digital Image Watermarking" EE381K Multidimensional Signal Processing.

[2]I. Cox, M. Miller, and J. Bloom, Digital Watermarking, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 2001.

[3]F. Hartung and M. Kutter, "Multimedia Watermarking Techniques", Proc. IEEE, Vol.87, no.7, pp 1079-1107, 1999.

[4]Wai Chu, "DCT-Based Image Watermarking Using Sub sampling." IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Mar. 2003. pp. 34-38.

[5]Min-Jen Tsai, Hsiao-Ying Hung, "DCT and DWT-Based Image Watermarking by Using Sub sampling" Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, MNSA (ICDCSW'04), March 23 - 24, 2004, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 184-189.

[6]M. Barni, F. Bartolini, V. Cappellini, and A. Piva, "A DCT-Domain System for Robust Image Watermarking," Signal Processing, vol. 66, 1998, pp. 357–372.

[7]Beauchamp K G "Walsh functions and their applications", London: Acad Press,1975.

[8]Al-Gindy, A. Tawfik H. Al- Ahmad and R. Qahwaji, "Enhanced DCT Based Technique with Shuffle Scheme For Robust Image Watermarking of Handwritten Signatures", International Conference for Communication, Computer and Power (ICCCP), Oman, February 2007, pp.450-455. 

[9]A. Al-Gindy, A. Tawfik H. Al- Ahmad and R. Qahwaji, "A New Blind Image Watermarking Of Handwritten Signatures using Low–Frequency Band DCT coefficients", IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications (ICSPC), November 2007, pp.1367-1370. 

[10]A. Al-Gindy, H. Al-Ahmad, R. Qahwaji and A. Tawfik, "Watermarking of Color Images in the DCT Domain Using Y Channel", IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, May 2009, pp.1025-1028. 

[11]A. Al-Gindy, A. Tawfik H. Al Ahmad and R. A. Qahwaji, "A New Blind Image Watermarking Technique for Dual Watermarks Using Low-Frequency Band DCT Coefficients", IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS), 2007, pp.538-541. 

[12]Hou Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli "Image Quality Assessment: From Error Visibility to Structural Similarity", IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, Vol.13, No.4, April 2004, pp.600-612. 

[13]A. Bin Sewaif, H. Al-Ahmad, and M. E. Al-Mualla, "2-D Walsh Coding for Robust Digital Image Watermarking," Signal Processing and Information Technology(ISSPIT), December 2004.

[14]B P Mishra, H.N.Pratihari & P.Das "DCT Based Grey Scale Still Image Watermarking Using 1-D Walsh Code and Biometric Protection" IJETTCS, Vol-4, Issue-2, 2015,pp28-32.



[17]B.P.Mishra, H.N.Pratihari & P.Das "Twofold watermarking technique for enhancement of security in grey scale still image", Journal of Emerging trends in computing and Information Science, Vol-6, Issue-3, 2015,pp174-179.

[18]B.P.Mishra, H.N.Pratihari & P.Das " Copyright protection in Grey scale image by applying dual Watermarking and 2-D Walsh Coding" , International Journal of Graphics and Image Processing, Vol-5, Issue-2, 2015, pp56-61.