International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP)

ISSN: 2074-9074 (Print), ISSN: 2074-9082 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJIGSP Vol.5, No.6, May. 2013

A New Steganography Technique Using Snake Scan Ordering Strategy

Full Text (PDF, 573KB), PP.25-32

Views:88   Downloads:0


Rajeev Kumar,Khushil K. Saini,Satish Chand

Index Terms

Steganography, cover image, stego image, snake scan ordering strategy, PSNR


In this paper, we propose a new steganography technique using the snake scan ordering strategy. The proposed method hides the secret data that is an image in another image, known as the cover image. In this method, the pixel values of the secret image are organized in snake scan order, which are preprocessed to reduce their size. The resultant data is embedded into the Least Significant Bits (LSBs) of the pixels of the cover image. To minimize the error/distortion, the pixel values of the stegoimage are adjusted using Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP). The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the simple LSB substitution method, Chang et al. method, Thein & Lin method, and Chen method in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Our proposed method has higher PSNR in almost all cases.

Cite This Paper

Rajeev Kumar,Khushil K. Saini,Satish Chand,"A New Steganography Technique Using Snake Scan Ordering Strategy", IJIGSP, vol.5, no.6, pp.25-32, 2013.DOI: 10.5815/ijigsp.2013.06.04


[1]J. Fridrich, Steganography in Digital Media: Principles, Algorithms, and Applications. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009.

[2]N. Provos and P. Honeyman, "Hide and seek: An introduction to steganography," IEEE Security Privacy, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 32–44, May/Jun. 2003.

[3]A. Westfeld, "F5 A steganographic algorithm: High capacity despite better steganalysis," Proceedings of 4th International Information Hiding Workshop, Springer-Verlag, Vol. 2137, pp. 289-302, 2001.

[4]M. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. Tewfik, "Multimedia data embedding and watermarking technologies," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 6, pp. 1064-1087, 1998.

[5]C. C. Chang, T. S. Chen, and L. Z. Chung, "A steganographic method based upon JPEG and quantization table modification", Information Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 123-138, 2002

[6]I. Cox, J. Kilian, T. Leighton, and T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 1673-1687, 1997.

[7]N. Provos, "Defending against statistical steganalysis," Proceedings of 10th Usenix Security Symposium, pp. 323-335, 2001.

[8]T. Filler, J. Judas, and J. Fridrich, "Minimizing embedding impact in steganography using trellis-coded quantization," in Proc. SPIE, Media Forensics and Security, 2010, vol. 7541, DOI: 10.1117/12.838002.

[9]S. Lyu and H. Farid, "Steganalysis using higher-order image statistics," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 111–119, Mar. 2006.

[10]J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, and R. Du, "Steganalysis based on JPEG compatibility," Proceedings of Special Digital Watermarking Data Hiding, pp. 275-280, 2001.

[11]J. Fridrich, R. Du and L. Meng, "Steganalysis of LSB encoding in color images," Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia, Vol. 3, pp. 1279-1282, 2000.

[12]A. Westfeld and A. Pfitzman, "Attacks on steganographic systems," Proceedings of 3rd International Information Hiding Workshop, Springer-Verlag, pp. 61-76, 1999.

[13]Zhang T. and Ping X., "A new approach to reliable detection of LSB steganography in natural images," Elsevier Journal of Signal Processing, Vol. 83, pp. 2085–2093, 2003.

[14]Dumitrescu S., Wu X. and Wang X., "Detection of LSB steganography via sample pair analysis," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 51, No. 7, pp. 1995-2007, 2003.

[15]C. K. Chan and L. M. Cheng, "Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution," Pattern Recognition, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 469–474, 2004.

[16]C. C. Chang, J. Y. Hsiao, C. S. Chen, "Finding optimal Least-Significant-Bit substitution in image hiding by dynamic programming strategy," Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, pp. 1583–1595, 2003.

[17]S. K. Chen, "A module-based LSB substitution method with lossless secret data compression", Computer Standards & Interfaces, Vol. 33, pp. 367–371, 2011.

[18]C. C. Thien and J. C. Lin, "A simple and high-hiding capacity method for hiding digit-bydigit data in images based on modulus function," Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, pp. 2875–2881, 2003.

[19]R. Z. Wang, C. F. Lin and J. C. Lin, "Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm," Pattern Recognition, vol. 34, pp. 671–683, 2001. 

[20]Chi-Kwong Chan, L.M. Cheng, Improved hiding data in images by optimal moderately signi7cant-bit replacement, IEEE Electron. Lett. 37 (16) (2001) 1017–1018.