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Color Image Watermarking, Content Authentication, Forgery Detection, Reversible, Fragile
In many applications, images are sensitive to an extent such that any modification in it could lead to serious problems. For example, hiding any portion of a medical image could lead to a misdiagnosis. Thus, detecting forgery in images is a mandatory as well as being a legal and ethical duty. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new Content Authentication (CA) watermarking scheme, which aims at detecting any modification, forgery, or illegal manipulation of images even if it is small. Our proposed scheme is a fragile, secure, and a reversible watermarking scheme. It generates the watermark uniquely using a messy model. The generated watermark is embedded accumulatively; to obtain spreading over the whole image area, and embedded homogeneously; to obtain a high quality watermarked image. Our proposed scheme is a development of a recently proposed watermarking scheme. Our proposed scheme surpassed its counterpart in terms of capacity, quality, watermark spreading, fragility, and embedding time. The payload of the host image increased from 81.71 % to 93.82 %. The minimum obtained PSNR value increased from 27.15 dB to 31.76 dB. The watermark spreading percentage, or the percentage of the protected pixels, is noticeably increased. Our proposed scheme is very sensitive to modifications anywhere in the image even if it is tiny. Finally, our proposed CA scheme has a faster embedding time than that of its counterpart. We obtained an average reduction in time equals 0.15 second.
Nader H. H. Aldeeb,Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba,"An Improved Watermarking Scheme for Tiny Tamper Detection of Color Images", IJIGSP, vol.5, no.5, pp.1-14, 2013. DOI: 10.5815/ijigsp.2013.05.01
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