Framework for an E-Voting System Applicable in Developing Economies

Full Text (PDF, 1007KB), PP.9-21

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Lauretta O. Osho Muhammad Bashir Abdullahi 1,* Oluwafemi Osho 2

1. Department of Computer Science

2. Department of Cyber Security Science

* Corresponding author.


Received: 15 Aug. 2016 / Revised: 13 Sep. 2016 / Accepted: 2 Oct. 2016 / Published: 8 Nov. 2016

Index Terms

e-voting, cloud computing, democracy, election, security, vailability


Information technology has pervaded virtually every facet of human life. Even in the delivery of governance, information technology has gradually found a place. One of its applications is the use of electronic voting, also known as e-voting, as opposed to the traditional manual method of voting. This form of voting, however, is not immune to challenges generally associated with voting. Two of these include guaranteeing voting access to all eligible voters, and providing necessary voting security. The challenge of accessibility is especially peculiar to developing countries where IT adoption is still relatively low. This paper proposes a framework for an e-voting system that would most benefit developing economies. It ensures availability of the system to only eligible voters and integrity of the voting process through its capacity to identify and prevent ineligible voters and multiple voting. To guarantee accessibility to all eligible voters, it supports both online and offline voting capabilities. Adopting electronic form of voting would provide a more robust, easier to use, and reliable system of voting, which, consequently, would contribute towards enhancing the delivery of democratic dividends.

Cite This Paper

Lauretta O. Osho, Muhammad B. Abdullahi, Oluwafemi Osho, "Framework for an E-Voting System Applicable in Developing Economies", International Journal of Information Engineering and Electronic Business(IJIEEB), Vol.8, No.6, pp.9-21, 2016. DOI:10.5815/ijieeb.2016.06.02


[1]V. Gupta, “e-Voting: Move to intelligence suffrage,” SETLabs Briefings, vol. 9(2), pp. 3–8, 2011.
[2]D. Zissis, and D. Lekkas, “Securing e-Government and e-Voting with an Open Cloud Computing Architecture,” Government Information Quarterly, vol. 28, pp. 239–251, 2011.
[3]O. Osho, V. L. Yisa, and O. J. Jebutu, ”E-Voting in Nigeria: A Survey of Voters’ Perception on Security and Other Trust Factors,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Cyberspace Governance, Abuja, FCT, pp. 202–211, November 2015. doi: 10.1109/CYBER-Abuja.2015.7360511.
[4]D. Zissis, “Methodologies and Technologies for Designing Secure Electronic Voting Information Systems,” 2011. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Aegean.
[5]ITU. “ITU Key 2005 – 2014 ICT Data,” 2015. Retrieved May 17, 2015 from
[6]Internet Society. “Global Internet Penetration.” Retrieved May 17, 2015 from UT n wgodrxUALg
[7]S. Chaeikar, M. Jafari, H. Taherdoost, and N. Chaeikar, “Definitions and Criteria of CIA Security Triangle in Electronic Voting System,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Information Technology vol. 1 (1), pp. 14–23, 2012.
[8]I. Ray, I. Ray, and N. Narasimhamurthi, “An Anonymous Electronic Voting Protocol for Voting over the Internet,” Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Advanced Issues of E-Commerce and Web-Based Information Systems, San Juan, CA, pp. 188–190, June 2001.
[9]K. Diehl, and S. Weddeling, “Online Voting Project-New Developments in the Voting System and Consequently Implemented Improvement in the Representation of Legal Principles,” Electronic Voting, pp. 213–222, 2006.
[10]O. M. Olaniyi, O. T. Arulogun, and E. O. Omidiora, “Design of Secure Electronic Voting System Using Multifactor Authentication and Cryptographic Hash Functions,” International Journal of Computer and Information Technology, vol. 2(6), pp. 1122–1130, 2013.
[11]O. O. Okediran, E. O. Omidiora, S. O. Olabiyisi, R. A. Ganiyu, and O. O. Alo, “A Framework for a Multifaceted Electronic Voting System,” International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, vol. 1(4), pp. 135–142, 2011.
[12]K. Visvalingam, and R. M. Chandrasekaran, “Secured Electronic Voting Protocol Using Biometric Authentication,” Advances in Internet of Things, vol. 1, pp. 38–50, 2011. doi:10.4236/ait.2011.12006.
[13]R. Alaguvel, and G. Gnanavel, “Offline and Online E-Voting System with Embedded Security for Real Time Application,” International Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 2(2), pp. 76–82, 2013.
[14]A. Gupta, P. Dhyani, and O. P. Rishi, “Cloud based e-Voting: One Step Ahead for Good Governance in India,” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 67(6), pp. 29–32, 2013.
[15]M. Malkawi, M. Khasawneh, O. Al-Jarrah, and L. Barakat “Modeling and Simulation of a Robust e-Voting System,” Communications of the IBIMA, vol. 8, pp. 198–206, 2009.
[16]O. M. Olaniyi, D. O. Adewumi, E. A. Oluwatosin, M. A. Bashorun, and O. T. Arulogun, “Framework for Multilingual Mobile E-Voting Service Infrastructure for Democratic Governance,” African Journal of Computing and ICT, vol. 4(2), pp. 23–32, 2011.
[17]S. Biswas, “GSM Verification Based Secure E-Voting Framework,” International Journal of u- and e-Service, Science, and Technology vol. 8(1), pp. 231–238, 2015.
[18]J. I. Njogu, “E-Voting System: A Simulation Case Study of Kenya,” 2014. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.
[19]M. Hajjar, B. Daya, A. Ismail, and H. Hajjar, “An E-Voting System for Lebanese Elections,” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, vol. 2(1), pp. 21–29, 2006.
[20]G. Ofori-Dwumfuo, and E. Paatey, “The Design of Electronic Voting System,” Research Journal of Information Technology, vol. 3(2), pp. 91 – 98, 2011.
[21]Presidential Committee on Broadband. “Nigeria’s National Broadband Plan 2013 – 2018.” Retrieved February 27, 2014 from: 20Nigerian%20National%20Broadband%20Plan%202013_19May2013%20FINAL.pdf
[22]National Population Commission. “2006 Population and Housing Census. Priority Table, Vol. 4,” 2010. Retrieved February 10, 2014 from images /Priority%20table%20Vol %204.pdf
[23]ITU. “Percentage of Individuals using the Internet,” 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2014 from Internet_2000-2012.xls
[24]G. Z. Qadah, and R. Taha, “Electronic Voting Systems: Requirements, Design, and Implementation,” Computer Standards and Interfaces, vol. 29, pp. 378–386, 2007.
[25]A. J. Menezes, P. C. Van Oorschot, and S. A. Vanstone, “Handbook of Applied Cryptography,” CRC Press, 1996.
[26]T. Z. Nwe, and S. W. Phyo, “Performance Analysis of RSA and ElGamal for Audio Security,” International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research, vol. 3(11), pp. 2494–2498, 2014.
[27]S. Marium, Q. Nazir, A. Ahmed, S. Ahthasham, and M. A. Mehmood, “Implementation of EAP with RSA for Enhancing the Security of Cloud Computing,” International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, vol. 1(3), pp. 177–183, 2012.