A Survey on Effective Defect Prevention - 3T Approach

Full Text (PDF, 469KB), PP.32-41

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Priyanka Chandani 1,* Chetna Gupta 2

1. JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida

2. Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida

* Corresponding author.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijieeb.2014.01.04

Received: 28 Oct. 2013 / Revised: 4 Dec. 2013 / Accepted: 2 Jan. 2014 / Published: 8 Feb. 2014

Index Terms

Defect, Defect Analysis, Defect Prevention, Orthogonal Defect classification, Root cause analysis


Defects are most detrimental entities which deter the smooth operation and deployment of the software system and can arise in any part of the life cycle, they are most feared, but still Defect Prevention is mostly discounted field of software quality. Unattended defects cause a lot of rework and waste of effort. Hence only finding the defects is not important, finding the root cause of the defect is also important which is quite difficult due to levels of abstraction in terms of people, process, complexity, environment and other factors. Through this study various techniques of Defect classification, prevention and root cause analysis are analysed. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the structured process showing defect prevention flow and inferring three T's (Tracking, Technique and Training) after analysis.

Cite This Paper

Priyanka Chandani, Chetna Gupta, "A Survey on Effective Defect Prevention - 3T Approach", International Journal of Information Engineering and Electronic Business(IJIEEB), vol.6, no.1, pp.32-41, 2014. DOI:10.5815/ijieeb.2014.01.04


[1]Wheeler S and Duggins S. Improving software quality[C]. ACM Southeast Regional conference, 1998, 300-309.

[2]Li M, Xiaoyuan H and Sontakke A. Defect Prevention: A General Framework and its Applications[C]. Proceedings of the IEEE sixth International Conference on Quality Software, Beijing, China, Oct. 2006,281-286.

[3]Kumaresh S. and Ramachandran B. Defect Prevention based on 5 dimensions of Defect Origin[J]. International Journal of Software Engineering & Applications (IJSEA),2012,3(4).

[4]Mays R.G. Applications of Defect Prevention in Software Development[J]. IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communications,1990,8(2):164–168.

[5]Suma V and Gopalakrishnan Nair T.R. Effective Defect Prevention Approach in Software Process for Achieving Better Quality Levels[J]. Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology,2008,32 

[6]Kumaresh S. and Baskaran R. Defect Analysis and Prevention For Software Process Quality Improvement[J]. International Journal of Computer Applications,2010,8(7):42–47.

[7]Kalinowski M., Card D. and Travassos G.H. Evidence –Based Guidelines to Defect Causal Analysis[J]. Software, IEEE,2012,29(4):16-18, doi: 10.1109/MS.2012.72.

[8]Dalal S and Chhillar R.S. Empirical Study of Root Cause Analysis of Software Failure[C]. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes archive, July 2013,38(4):1-7.

[9]Leszak, M., Perry D., and Stoll, D. A Case Study in Root Cause Defect Analysis[C]. Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering, ACM Press, June 2000, 428-437.

[10]Stefan Wagner. Defect Classification and Defect Type Revisited[A]. Proceedings of the 2008 workshop on Defects in large software systems, (DEFECTS?08), ACM Press, 2008.73-83.

[11]Chillarege Ram. Orthogonal Defect Classification[M]. In M. R. Lyu, editor, Handbook of Software Reliability Engineering, chapter 9. IEEE Computer Society Press and McGraw-Hill, 1996.

[12]Chillarege R., Bhandari I.S., Chaar J.K., Halliday M.J., Moebus D.S., Ray B.K. and Wong M.Y. Orthogonal Defect Classification-A Concept for In-Process Measurements[J]. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 1992, 18(11):943-956.

[13]Shenvi A. Defect Prevention with Orthogonal Defect Classification[C]. In Proc- ISEC '09, Feb 2009,83-88. 

[14]Trivedi P. and Pachori S. Modelling and Analysis of Software Defect Prevention using ODC[J]. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 2010, 1(3) :75-77.

[15]Zhi-bo L, Xue-mei H, Lei Y, Zhu-ping D and Bing X. Analysis of software Process Effectiveness Based on Orthogonal Defect Classification[C]. 3rd International Conference on Environmental Science and Information application Technology(ESIAT 2011), Elsevier, 2011, 765-770.

[16]Bridge N and Miller C. Orthogonal Defect Classification Using Defect Data to Improve Software Development[C]. International conference on software quality, Oct 6-8, 1997,7(0),197-213.

[17]Biolchini J et al. Systematic Review in Software Engineering[R]. Tech. report ES 679/05-PESC/COPPE/UFRJ, Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, 2005.

[18]Jalote P., Munshi R. and Proebsting T.A. The When-Who-How analysis of defects for improving the quality control process[J]. Journal of Systems and Software,2007,80(4):584-589.

[19]Li J, St?lhane T, Conradi R and Kristiansen J.M.W. Enhancing Defect Tracking Systems to Facilitate Software Quality Improvement[J]. IEEE Software, 2012, 29(2): 59-66.

[20]Mittal S., Solanki K and Saroha A. menment of Defects for Improving Software Processes[J]. International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies, 2011,11(2):2231-5268.

[21]Khan H.A. Establishing a Defect Management Process Model for Software Quality Improvement[J]. International Journal of Future Computer and Communication, 2013,2(6):585-589.

[22]Card D.N. Managing software quality with defects[J]. The Journal of Defence Software Engineering,2003.

[23]Lehtinen, T., M?ntyl?, M.V. and Vanhanen, J. Development and evaluation of a lightweight root cause analysis method (ARCA method) - Field studies at four software companies[J]. Journal of Information and Software Technology, 2011,53(10):1045-1061.

[24]Taba N.H. and Ow S.H. Software Defect Management Using a Comprehensive Software Inspection Model[J]. Software Engineering,2012, 2(4):160-164 DOI:10.5923/j.se.20120204.09.

[25]Langari, Z. and Pidduck, A. B. Quality, cleanroom and formal methods[C]. SIGSOFT Softw Eng. Notes, May 2005, 30(4) ,1-5. DOI= http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1082983.1083302.

[26]Huang L, Ng V, Persing I, Geng R, Bai X, and Tian J. AutoODC:Automated Generation of Orthogonal Defect Classifications[C]. Proceedings of the 26th IEEE/ACM Int. Conf. on Automated Software Engineering, Lawrence, KS, USA,2011,412-415.

[27]Dubey A. Towards adopting ODC in automation application development projects[C]. In Proceedings of the 5th India Software Engineering Conference, New York, USA, 2012,153–156

[28]Basin K and Santhanam P. Managing the Maintenance of Ported, Outsourced, and Legacy Software via Orthogonal Defect Classification[C]. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, Washington DC, USA, 2001, 726. IEEE Computer Society,2001.

[29]Card D. Defect Causal Analysis Drives Down Error Rates[J]. IEEE Software,1993,10(4):98–99.

[30]Suma V and Nair T.R.G. Defect Management Strategies in Software Development[R]. CoRR abs/1209.5573, 2012.

[31]Potnuri D, and Stringfellow C.V. Analysis of Open Source Defect Tracking Tools for Use in Defect Estimation[C]. Software Engineering Research and Practice, CSREA Press, 2005, 296-301.

[32]Tiejun P, Leina Z and Chengbin F. Defect Tracing System Based on Orthogonal Defect Classification[C]. In Proc. International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2008, 2, 574-577.

[33]Bean E. Defect Prevention and Detection in Software for Automated Test Equipment[J]. Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE,2008,11(4):16-23.

[34]Jalote P and Agarwal N. Using Defect Analysis Feedback for Improving Quality and Productivity in Iterative Software Development[C]. In proc- ITI 3rd International Conference on Information and Communications Technology, Dec 2007, 703-713.

[35]Singh V.B. and Chaturvedi K.K. Bug Tracking and Reliability Assessment System (BTRAS)[J]. International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications, 2011,5(4):1-14.

[36]Chang C.P. And Chu C.P. Defect prevention in software processes: An action-based approach[J]. Journal of Systems and Software,2007, 80(4): 559-570.

[37]Bassin K.A, Kratschmer T, and Santhanam P. Evaluating Software Development Objectively[J]. IEEE Software,1998,15(6):66-74.

[38]Sharma A., Hemrajani N., Shiwani S and Dave R. Defect Prevention Technique in Test Case of Software Process for Quality Improvement[J]. International Journal of Computer Technology and Application,2012, 3(1):56-61.

[39]Ram Chillarege. ODC - a 10x for Root Cause Analysis[A]. Proceedings RAM 2006 Workshop, Berkeley CA, 2006.

[40]Chillarege R. ODC Measurement and Analysis - Industry Applications[R]. Technical report, Chillarege Inc., 2007. 

[41]Graham M. Software Defect Prevention using Orthogonal Defect Prevention[R]. 2005, http://twin-spin.cs.umn.edu/node/844.

[42]Huber, J. T. A comparison of IBM's orthogonal defect classification to Hewlett Packard's defect origins, types and modes[C]. In Proceedings of International Conference on Applications of Software Measurement, San Jose, CA, 2000, 1-17.

[43]Buther M, Murino M. and Kratcher T. Improving Software Testing using ODC - Three Case Studies[J]. IBM Systems Journal,2002, 41(1):31-44.

[44]Leszak M., Perry D., and Stoll D. Classification and Evaluation of Defects in a Project Retrospective[J]. Journal of Systems and Software, Elsevier,2002,61(3):173-187.

[45]Freimut B, Denger C, and Ketterer M. An Industrial Case Study of Implementing and Validating Defect Classifcation for Process Improvement and Quality Management[C]. In Proc.11th IEEE International Software Metrics Symposium (METRICS '05), IEEE Computer Society, Sept 2005,19.

[46]Kavitha D. and Sheshasaayee A. Literature Review on Defect Management Process[J]. European Journal of scientific Research,2012, 85(3):426 – 431.