Keeping with the Global Trends: An Evaluation of Accessibility and Usability of Nigerian Banks Websites

Full Text (PDF, 578KB), PP.44-53

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Ishaq O. Oyefolahan 1,* Aishat A. Sule 2 Solomon A. Adepoju 2 Faiza Babakano 1

1. Department of Information and Media Technology, School of Information & Communication Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna

2. Department of Computer Science School of Information & Communication Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna

* Corresponding author.


Received: 7 Mar. 2018 / Revised: 2 Jun. 2018 / Accepted: 20 Jan. 2019 / Published: 8 Mar. 2019

Index Terms

Website, Accessibility, Usability, Nigeria, Website Evaluation Tools, Bank websites


The growing need for accessible websites cannot be overemphasized as it has posed a major challenge in the world of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Most businesses have gone online in order to improve their market value; the banking sector is not an exception. In an attempt to satisfying customers, websites developers have violated most of the websites standards. The banking sector is one area that carries out most of its activities online. Therefore, it is important that their websites be accessible to all especially people with visually impaired disability and more so, regardless of the browsing technology being used. This study evaluates the accessibility and usability of Nigeria banking websites using some automated tools and manual inspection method. This is done in order to know the conformance of the banking websites with standard as specified by Web Accessibility Initiate (WAI). Results from the study indicate that some of the websites do not conform to the expected standard. Hence, there is need for substantial improvements on most bank websites in Nigeria

Cite This Paper

Ishaq O. Oyefolahan, Aishat A. Sule, Solomon A. Adepoju, Faiza Babakano, "Keeping with the Global Trends: An Evaluation of Accessibility and Usability of Nigerian Banks Websites.", International Journal of Information Engineering and Electronic Business(IJIEEB), Vol.11, No.2, pp. 44-53, 2019. DOI:10.5815/ijieeb.2019.02.06


[1]C.-S. Wu, F.-F. Cheng, and H.-H. Lin, “Website Usability Evaluation of Internet Banking in Taiwan,” Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 23–36, 2004.
[2]S. Bansal, “Customer Attitude towards E-Banking Technology with Special Reference to Barnala District of Punjab,” International Journal of Education and Management Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 51–58, 2017.
[3]C. Howard, “Website Usability Is A Key Factor,” Usability Exchange, 2016. [Online]. Available:
[4]A. B. Martínez, J. De Andrés, and J. García, “Determinants of the Web accessibility of European banks,” Information Processing and Management, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 69–86, 2014.
[5]A. R. Onaolapo and E. C. Anene, “Bank Service Quality , Mobile Connectivity and Adoption of Internet Banking Among Selected University Students in Oyo State Nigeria,” International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 38–48, 2016.
[6]B. Abifarin, “How can Nigerian banks start to improve internet banking penetration?,” KPMG International Cooperative, 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 11-Jan-2018].
[7]I. Spencer, “The Importance of Usability and Accessibility in Design,” Career Foundry, 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 11-Jan-2018].
[8]J. Mvungi and T. Tossy, “Usability Evaluation Methods and Principles for the Web,” International Journal of Computer Science and Software Engineering, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 2409–4285, 2015.
[9]B. Sohrabi, P. Mahmoudian, and I. Raeesi, “A Framework for Improving e-Commerce Websites Usability Using A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network System,” Neural Computing and Applications, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1017–1029, 2011.
[10]W3C, “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0,” 2008. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 11-Jan-2018].
[11]ISO, “ISO 9241-11:Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (vdts)-- Part 11: Guidance on usability,” ISO 9241-11: 1998, vol. 1998, 1998.
[12]K. Sheerwin, “Nielsen Norman Group University Websites : Top 10 Design Guidelines,” 2016.
[13]G. Udo and M. Gerald, “Factors affecting e-commerce website effectiveness,” Journal of Computer Information Systems, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 10–16, 2002.
[14]S. G. Abduganiev, “Towards Automated Web Accessibility Evaluation : A Comparative Study,” International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science, vol. 3, pp. 18–44, 2017.
[15]J. Nielsen, “Usability 101: Introduction to Usability,” Nielsen Norman Group, 2012.
[16]J. Nielsen, “10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design,” Design Principles FTW, 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-May-2018].
[17]N. Fierro and C. Zapata, “Usability Heuristics for Web Banking,” in Design User Experrince and Usability, 2016, vol. 2, pp. 412–423.
[18]D. Wenham and P. Zaphiris, User Interface Evaluation Methods for Internet Banking Web Sites : A Review , Evaluation and Case Study. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.
[19]E. Diniz, E. Diniz, R. M. Porto, and T. Adachi, “Internet banking in Brazil : Evaluation of functionality , reliability and usability,” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2014.
[20]B. Giorgio, “A comparative test of web accessibility evaluation methods,” in Proceedings of the 10th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility, 2008, pp. 113–120.
[21]B. Al Mourad and F. Kamoun, “Accessibility Evaluation of Dubai e-Government Websites : Findings and Implications,” Journal of E-Government Studies and Best Practices, vol. 2013, pp. 1–15, 2013.
[22]B. H. Malik, S. Cai, A. G. Mastoi, N. Gul, and H. Gul, “Evaluating Citizen e-Satisfaction from e-Government Services : A Case of Pakistan,” European Scientific Journal February, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 346–370, 2016.
[23]R. Alberto, C. Juan, M. Francisca, and B. Enrique, “Evaluation of the hotels e-services quality under the user ’ s experience,” Soft Computing, 2015.
[24]M. Y. Ivory and A. Chevalier, “A Study of Automated Website Evaluation Tools,” 2002.
[25]H. Kaur and G. Gupta, “Comparative Study of Automated Testing Tools : Selenium , Quick Test Professional and Testcomplete,” vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1739–1743, 2013.
[26]A. Kaur and D. Diksha, “Banking Websites in India: an Accessibility Evaluation,” CSI transactions on ICT, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 23–34, 2014.
[27]J. Kuzma, Y. Dorothy, and O. Klaus, “Global e-Government web Accessibility: an empirical examination of EU, Asian and African Websites,” in the Second International conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Accessibility, 2009, pp. 83–90.
[28]S. A. Adepoju and I. S. Shehu, “Usability Evaluation of Academic Websites Using Automated Tools,” in 3rd International Conference on User Science and Engineering (i-USEr), 2014, pp. 186–191.
[29]F. J. Miranda, R. Cortés, and C. Barriuso, “Quantitative Evaluation of e-Banking Websites : an Empirical Study of Spanish Banks,” The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 73–82, 2006.
[30]W. Brian, J. Dung, and T. Kailee, “Exploring the accessibility of banking and finance systems for blind users,” First Monday, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1–17, 2017.
[31]M. K. Nasir, A. Awais, and B. Muhammad, “Accessibility Evaluation of banks websites in Pakistan for disabled,” in 1st International Conference on Technology Helping People with Special Needs (ICTHP-2013, 2013.
[32]J. Cappel and H. Zhenyu, “A usability analysis of company websites,” Journal of Computer Information Systems, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 117–123, 2007.
[33]R. Agarwal and V. Viswanath, “Assessing a Firms Web Presence: A Heuristic Evaluation Procedure for the Measurement of Usability,” Information Systems Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 168–186, 2002.
[34]A. Kaur and D. Dani, “The Web Navigability Structure of E- Banking in India,” International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 29–37, 2013.
[35]S. Kaur, K. Kaur, and P. Kaur, “Analysis of Website Usability Evaluation Methods,” in Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 3rd International Conference on. IEEE, 2016, pp.1043–1046.
[36]M. A. Aziz, W. A. R. Isa, W. mohd Isa, and N. Nordin, “Assessing the Accessibility and Usability of Malaysia Higher Education Website,” in International Conference on User Science Engineering, 2010, vol. 3, no. 2008, pp. 203–208.
[37]W3C, “WAI Guidelines and Techniques,” 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 10-Dec-2017].
[38]W3C, “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0,” W3C, 1999. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 05-Jul-2017].
[39]W3C, “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0,” 2008. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07-Jul-2008].
[40]EIII, “European Internet Inclusion Initiative,” EIII project, 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07-Nov-2017].
[41]WEBAIM, “Wave Accessibility Evaluation Tool,” 2001. [Online]. Available:
[42]Achecker, “Web Accessibility Checker,” 2011. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07-Nov-2017].
[43]Pingdom, “Pingdom Website Speed Test,” 2017. [Online]. Available:
[44]Google, “PageSpeed Insights,” 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 10-Nov-2017].
[45]“webpageFX,” 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07-Nov-2017].
[46]W3C, “Link Checker,” 2011. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Nov-2017].
[47]P. Chris, “Web Developer,” 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 13-Oct-2017].
[48], “Market Share Statistics for Internet Technologies,” NET MARKETSHARE, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Jul-2017].
[49]C. Kerri, “StatCounter.: Screen resolution alert for Web developers,” statcounter GlobalStat, 2012. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01-Dec-2017].
[50]StatCounter, “Screen resolution alert for Web developers,” 2012. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 09-Jul-2017].
[51]Toptal, “Colorblind Web Page Filter,” 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 11-Jan-2018].
[52]J. Bowen, “Web access to cultural heritage for the disabled,” in EVA 2003 London Conference, 2003.
[53]W3C, “Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools,” 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Nov-2017].
[54]Google, “Test your mobile speed,” 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 10-Nov-2017].