International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science (IJMECS)

ISSN: 2075-0161 (Print), ISSN: 2075-017X (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJMECS Vol.9, No.7, Jul. 2017

Latest Transformations in Scrum: A State of the Art Review

Full Text (PDF, 650KB), PP.12-22

Views:115   Downloads:3


Sara Ashraf, Shabib Aftab

Index Terms

Agile;Scrum;Tailored Scrum;Improved Scrum;Transformations in Scrum; Customized Scrum;Systematic Literature Review


Owing to a big deal of benefits that Agile process models offer to the software industry, they have been the center of attention for a couple of decades for researchers. Scrum has emerged as one of the most prevalent contemporary Agile approaches. It's adaptive and versatile nature makes it appropriate for adoption. Experts have been experimenting and tweaking the practices for last many years to enrich the Scrum. This paper is intended to provide the latest insightful understanding of how the Agile Scrum tailored and adapted in different areas for software process improvement that in turn lead to increased productivity and product quality. A research strategy has been designed to extract the literature since 2016, based on pragmatic transformations of Scrum, subsequently gaining the in-depth perception that is presented in the paper as a comprehensive review and the outcomes are discussed. This work will contribute a state-of-the-art objective summary from which advance research activities can be planned and carried out.

Cite This Paper

Sara Ashraf, Shabib Aftab,"Latest Transformations in Scrum: A State of the Art Review", International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science(IJMECS), Vol.9, No.7, pp.12-22, 2017.DOI: 10.5815/ijmecs.2017.07.02


[1]J. P. Souza, A. R. Zavan, and D. E. Flôr, “Scrum Hero: Gamifying the Scrum Framework,” In Brazilian Workshop on Agile Methods, pp. 131-135, Springer, Cham, November 2016.

[2]R. K. Gupta, P. Manikreddy, and K. C. Arya, “Pragmatic Scrum Transformation: Challenges, Practices & Impacts During the Journey A case study in a multi-location legacy software product development team,” In Proceedings of the 10th Innovations in Software Engineering Conference, pp. 147-156, ACM, February 2017.

[3]V. Sithole, and F. Solms, “Synchronized Agile,” In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists, p. 39, ACM, September 2016.

[4]P. Rahayu, D. I. Sensuse, W. R. Fitriani, I. Nurrohmah, R. Mauliadi, and H. N. Rochman, , “Applying usability testing to improving Scrum methodology in develop assistant information system,” In Information Technology Systems and Innovation (ICITSI), 2016 International Conference on, pp. 1-6, IEEE, October 2016.

[5]G. K. Hanssen, B. Haugset, T. Stålhane, T. Myklebust, and I. Kulbrandstad, “Quality Assurance in Scrum Applied to Safety Critical Software,” In International Conference on Agile Software `Development, pp. 92-103, Springer International Publishing, May 2016.

[6]C. Ardito, M. T. Baldassarre, D. Caivano, and R. Lanzilotti, “Integration of Human-Centred Design and Agile Software Development Practices: Experience Report from a SME” In Integrating User-Centred Design in Agile Development, pp. 117-135, Springer International Publishing, 2016.

[7]K. J. Padmini, I. Perera, and H. D. Bandara, “Applying agile practices to avoid chaos in User Acceptance Testing: A case study,” In Moratuwa Engineering Research Conference (MERCon), 2016, pp. 96-101, IEEE, April 2016. 

[8]D. P. Harvie, and A. Agah, “Targeted scrum: Applying mission command to agile software development,” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 42 no. 5, pp. 476-489, 2016.

[9]A. Alliance. 2001 "Agile manifesto," [Online]. Available: [Accessed 25 03 2017]

[10]K. Beck, M. Beedle, A. Van Bennekum, A. Cockburn, W. Cunningham, M. Fowler, J. Grenning, J. Highsmith, A. Hunt, R. Jeffries, and J. Kern, “Manifesto for agile software development,” 2001.

[11]P. O. Koivisto, “New agile process errors in software development,” 2010.

[12]C. Andres, and K. Beck, “Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change,” Reading: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2004.

[13]K. Conboy, “Agility from first principles: Reconstructing the concept of agility in information systems development,” Information Systems Research, vol. 20 no. 3, pp.329-354, 2009.

[14]A. Cockburn, “Agile Software Development Joins the" Would-Be" Crowd,” Cutter IT Journal, vol. 15 no. 1, pp.6-12, 2002.

[15]K. Schwaber, “Scrum development process,” In Business Object Design and Implementation, pp. 117-134, Springer London, 1997.

[16]J. A. Highsmith, “Agile software development ecosystems,” vol. 13, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2002.

[17]K. Schwaber, J. Sutherland, and M. Beedle, “The definitive guide to scrum: The rules of the game,” Recuperado de:, 2013. [Accessed: 15 03 2017]

[18]B.W. Boehm, R. Turner, “Balancing Agility and Discipline: A Guide for the Perplexed,” Addison-Wesley Longman, Boston, 2003.

[19]P. Brereton, B.A. Kitchenham, D. Budgen, M. Turner, and M. Khalil, “Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain,” Journal of systems and software, vol. 80 no. 4, pp. 571-583, 2007.

[20]D. L. Sackett, S. E. Staus, W. S. Richardson, W. Rosenberg, and R. B. Haynes, “How to practice and teach EBM,” Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

[21]B. A. Kitchenham, S. L. Pfleeger, L. M. Pickard, P. W. Jones, D. C. Hoaglin, K. El Emam, and J. Rosenberg, “Preliminary guidelines for empirical research in software engineering,” IEEE Transactions on software engineering, vol. 28, no. 8, pp.721-734, 2002.

[22]B. A. Kitchenham and S. Charters, “Procedures for Performing Systematic Literature Review in Software Engineering,” EBSE Technical Report version 2.3, EBSE-2007-01, Software Eng. Group.

[23] [Accessed 20 03 2017]

[24]T. Dybå, and T. Dingsøyr, Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review. Information and software technology, vol. 50, no. 9, pp.833-859, 2008.

[25]E. Hossain, M. A. Babar, and H. Y. Paik, “Using scrum in global software development: a systematic literature review,” In Global Software Engineering, 2009. ICGSE 2009. Fourth IEEE International Conference on, pp. 175-184, IEEE, 2009, July.

[26]F. J. Pino, F. García, and M. Piattini, “Software process improvement in small and medium software enterprises: a systematic review,” Software Quality Journal, vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 237-261, 2008.

[27]S. Jalali, and C. Wohlin, “Global software engineering and agile practices: a systematic review,” Journal of software: Evolution and Process, vol. 24 no. 6, pp. 643-659, 2012.

[28]T. S. Da Silva, A. Martin, F. Maurer, and M. Silveira, “User-centered design and agile methods: a systematic review,” In Agile Conference (AGILE), 2011, pp. 77-86, IEEE, August 2011. 

[29]E. S. Cardozo, J. B. F. A. Neto, A. Barza, A. C. C França, and F.Q. da Silva, “SCRUM and Productivity in Software Projects: A Systematic Literature Review,” In EASE, April 2010.

[30]T. Karvonen, W. Behutiye, M. Oivo, and P. Kuvaja, “Systematic literature review on the impacts of agile release engineering practices,” Information and Software Technology, 2017.

[31]I. Nurdiani, J. Börstler, and S. A. Fricker, “The impacts of agile and lean practices on project constraints: A tertiary study,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 119, pp.162-183, 2016.

[32]E. M. Schön, J. Thomaschewski, and M. J. Escalona, “Agile Requirements Engineering: A systematic literature review,” Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 49, pp.79-91, 2017.

[33]R. Hoda, N. Salleh, J. Grundy, and H. M. Tee, "Systematic literature reviews in agile software development: A tertiary study," Information and Software Technology, vol. 85, pp. 60-70, 2017. 

[34]F. J. Pino, O. Pedreira, F. García, M. R. Luaces, and M. Piattini, "Using Scrum to guide the execution of software process improvement in small organizations," Journal of systems and software, vol. 83 no. 10, pp. 1662-1677, 2010.

[35]D. Firesmith, "Creating a project-specific requirements engineering process," Journal of Object Technology, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp.31-44, 2004.

[36]T. Dreesen, R. Linden, C. Meures, N. Schmidt, and C. Rosenkranz, "Beyond the Border: A Comparative Literature Review on Communication Practices for Agile Global Outsourced Software Development Projects," In System Sciences (HICSS), 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on, pp 4932-4941, IEEE, January 2016.

[37]O. Pedreira, M. Piattini, M. R. Luaces, and N. R. Brisaboa, "A systematic review of software process tailoring," ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, vol. 32, no. 3, pp.1-6, 2007. 

[38]J. A. Hurtado Alegría, M. C. Bastarrica, A. Quispe, and S. F. Ochoa, "An MDE approach to software process tailoring," In Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Software and Systems Process, pp. 43-52, ACM, May 2011.

[39]K. Dikert, M. Paasivaara, and C. Lassenius, "Challenges and success factors for large-scale agile transformations: A systematic literature review," Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 119, pp. 87-108, 2016. 

[40]J. M. Bass, "Large-scale offshore agile tailoring: exploring product and service organisations," In Proceedings of the Scientific Workshop Proceedings of XP2016, p. 8, ACM, May 2016.

[41]G. K. Hanssen, D. Šmite, and N. B. Moe, "Signs of agile trends in global software engineering research: A tertiary study," In Global Software Engineering Workshop (ICGSEW), 2011 Sixth IEEE International Conference on, pp. 17-23, IEEE, August 2011.

[42]S. Sharma, and N. Hasteer, "A comprehensive study on state of Scrum development," In Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA), 2016 International Conference on, pp. 867-872, IEEE, April 2016.

[43]A. Brown and J. Sutherland, "Scrum at scale - go modular for greater success,", 2014. [Accessed: 22 03 2017]

[44]S. Mulder, "An action research study on the use of scrum to provide agility in data warehouse development," (Doctoral dissertation), 2011.

[45]K. Schwaber, and M. Beedle, "Agile software development with Scrum," Vol. 1, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2002.

[46]T. Sharma, “Pragmatic Technical Debt Management,” Techie, Researcher, Consultant, and Author at Siemens R&D, Slide Share, Apr 17, 2015.

[47]F. Anwer, S. Aftab, U. Waheed, and S. S. Muhammad, “Agile Software Development Models TDD, FDD, DSDM, and Crystal Methods: A Survey,” International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering, vol. 8, no. 2, 2017.

[48]S. Asiri, M. R. J. Qureshi, "The Proposed GSD Model to Solve Coordination and Communication Problems,” IJMECS, vol.6, no.11, pp.25-30, 2014.

[49]H. Iqbal, M. F. Khan, "Assimilation of Usability Engineering and User-Centered Design using Agile Software Development Approach," IJMECS, vol.6, no.10, pp. 23-28, 2014.