International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science (IJMECS)

ISSN: 2075-0161 (Print), ISSN: 2075-017X (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJMECS Vol.5, No.4, May. 2013

Teachers’ Use of Technology and Constructivism

Full Text (PDF, 321KB), PP.49-63

Views:98   Downloads:19


Abbas Pourhosein Gilakjani,Lai-Mei Leong,Hairul Nizam Ismail

Index Terms

Technology;Definition;Role;Constructivism;Benefits;Factors;Learning Theory


Technology has changed the way we teach and the way we learn. Many learning theories can be used to apply and integrate this technology more effectively. There is a close relationship between technology and constructivism, the implementation of each one benefiting the other. Constructivism states that learning takes place in contexts, while technology refers to the designs and environments that engage learners. Recent efforts to integrate technology in the classroom have been within the context of a constructivist framework. The purpose of this paper is to examine the definition of constructivism, incorporating technology into the classroom, successful technology integration into the classroom, factors contributing to teachers’ use of technology, role of technology in a constructivist classroom, teacher’s use of learning theories to enable more effective use of technology, learning with technology: constructivist perspective, and constructivism as a framework for educational technology. This paper explains whether technology by itself can make the education process more effective or if technology needs an appropriate instructional theory to indicate its positive effect on the learner.

Cite This Paper

Abbas Pourhosein Gilakjani,Lai-Mei Leong,Hairul Nizam Ismail,"Teachers’ Use of Technology and Constructivism", IJMECS, vol.5, no.4, pp.49-63, 2013.DOI: 10.5815/ijmecs.2013.04.07


[1]T. Teo, “Pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards computer use: A Singapore survey,” Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 413-424, 2008. 

[2]E. Judson, “How teachers integrate technology and their beliefs about learning: Is there a connection?” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 581-597, 2006. 

[3]R. T. Richards, “Infusing technology and literacy into the undergraduate teacher education curriculum through the use of electronic portfolios,” T.H.E. Journal, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 46-50, 1998.

[4]T. Brush, and J. W. Saye, “Strategies for preparing pre-service social studies teachers to integrate technology effectively: Model and practices,” Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 46-59, 2009.

[5]D. H. Schunk, “ Learning theories: an educational perspective,” New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

[6]M. J. Hannafin, and R. J. Hill, “Epistomology and the design of learning environments,” In R. A. Reiser, & Dempsey, J. V. (Ed.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall, 2002.

[7]W. L. Saunders, “The constructivist perspective: Implications and teaching strategies for science,” School Science Mathematics, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 136-141, 1992. DOI: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.1992.tb12159.x

[8]J. G. Brooks, and M. G. Brooks, “The case for constructivist classrooms,” Alexandria, VA.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993.

[9]I. Harel, and S. Papert, “Constructionism.,” Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing, 1991.

[10]S. Holzer, “From Constructivism to Active Learning,” The Innovator, no.2, 1994.

[11]Y. Feng, “Some Thoughts about Applying Constructivist Theories of Learning to Guide Instruction,” University of Washington, 1995.

[12]E. von Glasersfeld, “Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning,” London and Washington: The Falmer Press, 1995.

[13]E. Murphy, “Constructivism from Philosophy to Practice,”, 1997.

[14]L. Darling-Hammond, and B. Falk, “Using standards and assessments to support learning,” Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 79, no. 3, pp.190-199, 1997.

[15]J. Confrey, “What constructivism implies for teaching,” In Constructivist views of mathematics, 1990.

[16]P. Ernest, “Social constructivism and the psychology of mathematics education,” In Ernest, P. (Ed.). Constructing mathematical knowledge: Epistomology and mathematical education. Falmer Press, 1994.

[17]N. Noddings, “Constructivism in mathematics education." In Davis R.B. (Ed.). Constructivist views on the teaching and learning of mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education: Monograph, no. 4. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1990.

[18]M. G. Mikusa, and H. Lewellen, “Now here is that authority on mathematics reform,” Dr. Constructivist! Mathematics Teacher, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 158-163, 1999.

[19]S. Pirie, and T. Kieren, “Creating constructivist environments and constructing creative mathematics,” Educational Studies in Mathematics, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 505-528, 1992. DOI: 10.1007/BF00571470

[20]S. Hanley, “On constructivism,” [On-line]. Available:, 1994.

[21]D. Schwartz, “Ghost in the machine: Seymour Papert on how computers fundamentally change the way kids learn,” Interview, 1999. Available WWW: [].

[22]T. Reeves, “Evaluating what really matters in computer-based education,” University of Georgia, 1997. Available WWW: [file:///Macintosh%20HD/Desktop%20Folder/reviewed/reeves.htm].

[23]B. G. Wilson, “Metaphors for instruction: why we talk about learning environments,” Educational Technology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 25-30, 1995. Available WWW: [].

[24]D. Maor, “Teachers-as-learners: the role of a multimedia professional development program in changing classroom practice,” Australian Science Teachers Journal, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 45- 51, 1999.

[25]J. Petraglia, “The real world on a short leash: the (mis)application of constructivism to the design of educational technology,” E T R & D, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 53-65, 1998.

[26]R. Yager, “The constructivist learning model, towards real reform in science education,” The Science Teacher, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 52-57, 1991.

[27]B. G. Wilson, “Reflections on constructivism and instructional design, instructional development paradigms,” Educational Technology Publications, 1997. Available WWW: [].

[28]M. Dougiamas, “A journey into constructivism,” [On-line]. Available:, 1998.

[29]S. Papert, “Papert on Piaget, the century's greatest minds,” Time. p. 105, 1999.

[30]K. Dawson, C. Cavanaugh, and A. Ritzhaupt, “Florida’s EETT Leveraging Laptops Initiative and its impact on teaching practices,” University of North Carolina at Wilmington, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 143-159, 2008. 

[31]B. Drayton, J. K. Falk, R. Stroud, K. Hobbs, and J. Hammerman, “After installation: Ubiquitous computing and high school science in three experienced, high-technology schools,” Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, vol. 9, no. 3, 2010.

[32]C. Mouza, “Learning with laptops: Implementation and outcomes in an urban, underprivileged school,” Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 447-472, 2008.

[33]H. Wenglinksy, “Does it compute? The relationship between educational technology and student achievement in mathematics,” Educational Testing Service, Princeton NJ. Policy Information Centre, 1998.

[34]L. M. O’Dwyer, M. Russell, D. Bebell, and K. R. Tucker-Seeley, “Examining the relationship between home and school computer use and students’ English/language arts test scores,” Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, vol. 3, no. 3, 2005.

[35]B. Means, “Technology and education change: Focus on student learning,” Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 285-307, 2002.

[36]K. S. Shapley, C. Maloney, and F. Caranikas-Walker, “Evaluating the implementation fidelity of technology immersion and its relationship with student achievement,” Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1-2, 2010. 

[37]L. M. Gorder, “A study of teacher perceptions of instructional technology integration in the classroom,” Delta PI Epsilon Journal, vol. 2, pp. 63-76, 2008.

[38]K. F. Hew, “Integrating technology into k-12 teaching and learning: Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research,” Educational Technology, Research and Development, vol. 55, pp. 223-252, 2007.

[39]T. H. S. Eysink, T. deJong, K. Berthold, F. Kolloffel, M. Opfermann, and P. Wouters, “Learner performance in multimedia learning arrangements: An analysis across instructional approaches,” American Educational Research Journal, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1106-1149, 2009.

[40]J. T. Fouts, “Research on computers and education: Past, present and future,” Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Available: 2000. 

[41]d. Oblinger, “Boomers and gen-xers millennials understanding the new students,” Educause Review, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 37-47, 2003.

[42]D. Brown, M. Warschauer, “From the university to the elementary classroom: students’ experience in learning to integrate technology in instruction,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 599-621, 2006.

[43]J.H.L. Koh, and T. W. Frick, “Instructor and student classroom interactions during technology skills instruction for facilitating pre-service teachers' computer self-efficacy,” Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 211-228, 2009. 

[44]P. Hernandez-Ramos, “If Not Here, Where? Understanding Teachers' Use Of Technology In Silicon Valley Schools,” Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 39-64, 2005. 

[45]L. Wozney, V. Venkatesh, P. C. Abrami, “Implementing computer technologies: Teachers' perceptions and practices,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 173-207, 2006.

[46]L. Alvine, “A 20th century English teacher educator enters the 21st century: A response to Pope and Golub,” Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 102-106, 2000.

[47]H. J. Becker, “The exemplary teacher’ paper: How it arouses and how it changed its author’s research program,” Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1-9, 2000.

[48]C. A. Bowman, “Infusing technology-based instructional frameworks in the methods courses: A response to Pope and Golub,” Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 98-101, 2000.

[49]D. Bullock, “Moving from theory to practice: An examination of the factors that pre-service teachers encounter as they attempt to gain experience teaching with technology during field placement experiences,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 211-224, 2004.

[50]R. Aust, B. Newberry, J. O'Brien, and J. Thomas, “Learning generation: Fostering innovation with tomorrow's teachers and technology,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 167-180, 2005.

[51]P. Adamy, and W. Heinecke, “The influence of organizational culture on technology integration in teacher education,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 233-244, 2005.

[52]J. Howland, and J. Wedman, “A process model for faculty development: Individualizing technology learning,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 239-251, 2004.

[53]J. Burnston, “Proving IT Works,” CALICO Journal, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 219-226, 2003.

[54]K. Sheingold, and M. Hadley, “Accomplished teachers: Integrating computer in classroom practice,” New York: Bank Street College of Education, Centre for Technology in Education, 1990.

[55]P. A. Dupin-Bryant, “Variables related to interactive television teaching style: In search of learner-centred teaching styles,” International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 3-14, 2004.

[56]J. Machnaik, “Investigating the effect(s) of technology integration on teaching practices that may lead to the development of a community of learners (Electronic version),” Saskatoon, SK, Canada: University of Saskatchewan, 2002.

[57]A. Dillon, and M. G. Morris, “User acceptance of information technology: Theories and models,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 31, pp. 3-32, 1996.

[58]J. M. Carroll, M. B. Rosson, D. Dunlap, and P. Isenhour, “Frameworks for sharing teaching practices,” Educational Technology and Society, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 162-175, 2005.

[59]L. Cuban, “Oversold and underused: Computers in the classroom,” London: Harvard University Press, 2001.

[60]Y. Zhao, and G. A. Cziko, “Teacher adoption of technology: A perceptual control theory perspective,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 9, pp. 5–30, 2001.

[61]S. Parks, D. Huot, J. Hamers, and F. H. Lemonnier, “Crossing boundaries: multimedia technology and pedagogical innovation in a high school class,” Language Learning and Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 28-45, 2003.

[62]C. Chen, “Why do teachers not practice what they believe regarding technology integration?” Journal of Educational Research, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 65-75, 2004.

[63]G. Dudeney, and N. Hockly, “”How to teach English with technology?” Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2007.

[64]M. Liu, and H. Huo, “Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in China: Some common concerns,” US-China Foreign Language, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 52-58, 2007.

[65]C. N. Park, and J. B. Son, “Implementing computer assisted language learning in the EFL classroom: Teacher perceptions and perspectives,” International Journal of Pedagogy and Learning, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 80-101, 2009.

[66]S. L. Dexter, R. E. Anderson, and H. J. Becker, “Teachers' views of computers as catalysts for changes in their teaching practice,” Journal of Research on Computing in Education, vol. 31, pp. 221-238, 1999.

[67]K. Mitchem, D. Wells, and J. Wells, “Effective integration of instructional technologies (IT): evaluating professional development and instructional change,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 397-414, 2003.

[68]J. Bauer, and J. Kenton, “Toward technology integration in the schools: Why it isn’t happening,” Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 519-546, 2005.

[69]C. Q. Yang, “A research study on teacher professional development in technology-rich educational environment,” Teacher Professional Development Forum, Retrieved on June 20, 2009 from, 2008.

[70]M. Shi, and B. A. Bichelmeyer, “Teachers’ experiences with computers: A comparative study,” Educational Technology and Society, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 180-190, 2007.

[71]R. C. Wei, L. Darling-Hammond, A. Andree, N. Richardson, and S. Orphanos, “Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad,” Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council, 2009.

[72]G. Li, and M. S. Protacio, “Best practices in professional development for teachers of ELLs,” In G. Li and P. Edwards (Eds.), Best practices in ELL instruction. NY: Guilford Press, 2010.

[73]D. S. Bennahum, “School's out? Interview of Seymour Papert,” Available WWW:, 1996.

[74]D. Jonassen, “There is No Need to Reclaim the Field of ID: It's Just Growing,” Available WWW: [, 1996.

[75]M.G. Jones, “Learning to play; playing to learn: lessons learned from computer games,” Available WWW: [, 1997.

[76]D. H. Jonassen, C. Carr, and H. P. Yueh, “Computers as Mindtools for engaging learners in critical thinking,” Tech Trends, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 24-32, 1998.

[77]K. Muller, “Constructivism in education,” Katholische Universitat Eichstatt, Germany. Available WWW: [].

[78]S. Rodrigues, “The interpretive zone between software designers and a science educator: grounding instructional multimedia design in learning theory,” Journal of Research on Computing in Education, vol. 33, no. 1, p. 1, 2000.

[79]D. Brown, “Kids, computers and constructivism,” Journal of Instructional Psychology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 189- 196, 1996.

[80]S. Papert, “Computer as material: messing about with time,” The Teachers College Record, vol. 89, no. 3, 1998. Available WWW: []

[81]S. Cohen, “Review of Seymour Papert, the children's machine: rethinking school in the age of the computer (New York: Basic Books, 1993); and Seymour papert, the connected family: bridging the digital generation gap (Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1996)” Available WWW:, 1993.

[82]B. Muniandy, R. Mohammad, and S. F. Fong, “Synergizing pedagogy, learning theory and technology in instruction: How can it be done?” US-China Education Review, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 46-53, 2007.

[83]G. C. Rakes, V. S. Fields, and K. E. Cox, “The influence of teachers’ technology use on instructional practices,” Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 409-424, 2006. 

[84]D. Jonassen, “Objectivism vs constructivism: Do we need a new philosophical paradigm?” Educational Technology, Research and Development, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 5-13, 1991.

[85]R. McClintock, “Power and pedagogy: Transforming education through information technology,” New York: Teachers College Press, 1992.

[86]D. H. Jonassen, K. Peck, and B. Wilson, “Learning with technology: A constructivist perspective,” Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc, 1999.

[87]S. Lajoie, and S. Derry, “Computers as Cognitive Tools,” LEA: Hillsdale, NJ, 1993.

[88]D. H. Jonassen, “Computers as mind-tools for schools: Engaging critical thinking,” Columbus, OH: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

[89]R. Tretten, and P. Zachariou, “Learning about project-based learning: Self-assessment preliminary report of results,” San Rafael, CA: The Autodesk Foundation, 1995.

[90]K. Ryba, M. E. Brown, “How proficient IT teachers integrate computers into the curriculum,” Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, vol. 16, pp. 6-11, 2000.

[91]B. Means, and K. Olson, “Technology and education reform,” Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1997.

[92]E. M. Riddle, “Communication through multimedia in an elementary classroom,” Charlottesville, VA: Curry School of Education, University of Virginia. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 384 346), 1995.