International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP)

ISSN: 2074-9074 (Print), ISSN: 2074-9082 (Online)

Published By: MECS Publisher

IJIGSP Vol.8, No.9, Sep. 2016

Two-Dimensional Parameters Estimation

Full Text (PDF, 512KB), PP.1-9

Views:2   Downloads:0


Shiv Gehlot, Harish Parthasarathy, Ravendra Singh

Index Terms

Direction of arrival;high resolution;two-dimensional;velocity estimation


A parametric approach algorithm based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is proposed which can be exploited for high-resolution parameter estimation in the domain of signal processing applications. The array signal model turns out to be a superposition of two-dimensional sinusoids with the first component of each frequency doublet corresponding to the direction of the target and second component to the velocity. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the validity of the proposed algorithm and its various aspects. Also, the presented algorithm is compared with a subspace based technique, multiple signal classification (MUSIC) to highlight the key differences in performance under different circumstances. It is observed that the developed algorithm has satisfactory performance and is able to determine the direction of arrival (DOA) as well as the velocity of multiple moving targets and at the same time it performs better than MUSIC under correlated noise. 

Cite This Paper

Shiv Gehlot, Harish Parthasarathy, Ravendra Singh,"Two-Dimensional Parameters Estimation", International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP), Vol.8, No.9, pp.1-9, 2016.DOI: 10.5815/ijigsp.2016.09.01


[1]Dong P. "Robust Digital Image Watermarking". PhD thesis, Electrical Engineering in the Graduate College of the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA, 2004. 

[2]Terzija N. "Robust Digital Image Watermarking Algorithms for Copyright Protection". PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Duisburg Essen University, Duisburg, Germany, 2006. 

[3]Kazan S. "Digital Image Watermarking Methods Using Moment Based Normalization". PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey, 2009. 

[4]Potdar VM., Han S. Cahng E. "A survey of digital image watermarking techniques", IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, Perth, Australia,10-12 August, 2005, pp. 709-716. 

[5]Shing P., Chadha R. "A survey of digital image watermarking techniques application and attacks", International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), 2013, vol. 2 19, pp.70-73.

[6]Haykin S. Adaptive Filter Theory. ed. New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 2002.

[7]Bao P., Ma X. "Image adaptive watermarking using wavelet domain singular value decomposition", IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Tech., 2005,vol.15 1, pp.96-102. 

[8]Lai CC., Tsai CC. "Digital Image watermarking using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2011, vol.59 11, pp. 3060-3063. 

[9]Kekre HB., Sarade T., Natu S." Performance Comparison of Watermarking Using SVD with Orthogonal Transforms and Their Wavelet Transforms", I. J. Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 2015, vol.4, pp. 1-18. 

[10]Giri KJ., Peer MA., Nagabhushan P."A Robust Color Image Watermarking Scheme Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation", I. J. Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 2015, vol.1, pp. 47-52

[11]Mohananthini N., Yamuna G." A Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Based Multiresolution Analysis", I. J. Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 2012, vol.11, pp. 9-15.

[12]Aslantas V., Dogan LA., Ozturk S. "DWT-SVD based image watermarking using particle swarm optimizer", Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo, 2008, Hannover, Germany, pp.241–244.

[13]Bhatnagar G., Raman B. "A new robust reference watermarking scheme based on DWT-SVD", Comput. Standards Interfaces, 2009, vol. 31 5, pp.1002–1013.

[14]Ganic E., Eskicioglu AM. "Robust DWT-SVD domain image watermarking: Embedding data in all frequencies", Proc. Workshop Multimedia Security, Magdeburg, Germany, 2004, pp.166–174.

[15]Li Q., Yuan C., Zhong, Y. Z. "Adaptive DWT-SVD domain image watermarking using human visual model." Proc. 9thInt. Conf. Adv. Commun. Technol., Gangwon-Do, South Korea, 2007, pp. 1947–1951.

[16]Ganic E., Eskicioglu AM. "Robust embedding of visual watermarks using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition", Journal on Electron. Imaging, 2005, vol.14 4, pp.043004-9.

[17]Nyguyan T H. et al. "Robust and high capacity watermarking for image based on DWT-SVD", The 2015 IEEE RIVF Int. Conf. on Computing & Communication Tech., 2005, pp.83-88. 

[18]Makbol NM., Khoo BE. "Robust blind image watermarking scheme based on redundant wavelet transform and singular value decomposition",Int. J. Electron. Commun.(AEÜ), 2013, vol.67, pp.102-112.

[19]Lagzian S., Soryani M., "Fathy M. A new robust watermarking scheme based on RDWT-SVD", International Journal of Intelligent Information Processing, 2011, vol. 2(1), pp.1-8. 

[20]Lagzian S., Soryani M., Fathy M. "Robust watermarking scheme based on RDWT-SVD: embedding data in all sub-bands", International Symp. on Artificial Intelligence and Signal Processing (AISP), Tehran,15-16 June, 2011, pp. 48-52.

[21]Khare P., Verma AK., Srivasta VK. "Digital image watermarking scheme in wavelet domain using chaotic encryption", Students Conference on Engineering and Systems (SCES), Allahabad, 28-30 May, 2014, pp.1-4. 

[22]Liu NS., Guo DH. "Robust digital watermarking based on chaotic maps", Int. Conf. on Anti-Counterfeiting, Security and Identification (ASID), 2012, pp.1-5. 

[23]Yi Z. "Design of watermarking algorithm based on chaos and discrete transform", Fifth International Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Engineering App., Hunan,15-16 June, 2014, pp. 404-407.

[24]Tiwari A., Gupta KK. "An effective approach of digital image watermarking for copyright protection", International Journal of Big Data Security Intelligence, 2015, vol.2 1, pp.7-18. 

[25]Ma N., Zhang Q., Li Y. "Digital image watermarking robust to geometric attacks based on wavelet domain", IEEE Fifth International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA), 2010, pp. 787-792. 

[26]Liu F., Wu C-K. "Robust visual cryptography-based watermarking scheme for multiple cover images and multiple owners", IET Information Security, 2011, vol. 5 2, pp. 121-128.

[27]Prodhan C., Saxena V., Bisoi A K. "Non-blind digital watermarking technique using DCT and cross chaos map", International Conference on Communications, Devices and Intelligent Systems (CODIS), Kolkata, 28-29 December, 2012, pp. 274-277 

[28]Anees A., Siddgui AM. "A technique for digital watermarking in combined spatial and transform domains using chaotic maps", 2nd. National Conference on Information Assurance (NCIA), 11-12 December, 2013, Rawalpindi, pp. 119-124. 

[29]Zhou S., Wang B., Zhang X., Zhou C. "Digital watermarking based on chaos game representation and discrete cosine transform", 7th. International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, 14-16 October, 2014, Dalian, pp.335-339. 

[30]Singh S., Bansel S., Singh S. "Robust and secure image watermarking using DWT-SVD and chaotic map", International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 2015, vol. 4 9:, pp.111-116.

[31]Cui S., Wang Y. "Redundant wavelet transform in video signal processing", Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Computer Vision, Matrix Recognition, Las Vegas, 2006, pp. 191-196. 

[32]Haque SR. "Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform Based Image Watermarking", Department of Interaction and System Design School of Engineering Blekinge Institute of Technology, MSc., Blekinge, Sweden, 2008. 

[33]Stavroulakis P. Chaos Applications in Telecommunications,1st ed., Boca Raton, FL, USA, Taylor &Francis, CRC Press,2006. 

[34]Al-Haj A..Combined "DWT-DCT Digital Image Watermarking", Journal of Computer Science, 2007, vol. 3 9, pp.740-746.

[35]Rawat S., Raman B. "A publicly verifiable lossless watermarking scheme for copyright protection and ownership assertion", Int. J. Electron Commun. (AEÜ), 2012, vol.66, pp.955-962.

[36]Rastegar S., Namazi F. "A hybrid watermarking algorithm based on singular values decomposition and radon transform", Int. J. on Electron. Commun. (AEÜ), 2012; vol.66 4, pp.275-28.[1]Hamid Karim and Mats Viberg, "Two Decade of Array Signal Processing,"IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, July 1996.

[2]Schmidt, R.O, "Multiple Emitter Location and Signal Parameter Estimation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. AP-34 (March 1986), pp.276-280.

[3]Belouchrani, A.; Amin, M.G., "Time-frequency MUSIC," Signal Processing Letters, IEEE , vol.6, no.5, pp.109,110, May 1999.

[4]Paulraj, A.; Roy, R.; Kailath, T., "A subspace rotation approach to signal parameter estimation," Proceedings of the IEEE , vol.74, no.7, pp.1044,1046, July 1986.

[5]Roy, R.; Kailath, T., "ESPRIT-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques," Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on , vol.37, no.7, pp.984,995, Jul 1989.

[6]GIRD Systems, Inc. 310 Terrace Ave. Cincinnati, Ohio 45220, "An Introduction to MUSIC and ESPRIT". 

[7]Lavate, T.B.; Kokate, V.K.; Sapkal, A.M., "Performance Analysis of MUSIC and ESPRIT DOA Estimation Algorithms for Adaptive Array Smart Antenna in Mobile Communication," Computer and Network Technology (ICCNT), 2010 Second International Conference on , vol., no., pp.308,311, 23-25 April 2010.

[8]H.L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, New York, Wiley 1971.

[9]Myung, In Jae. "Tutorial on maximum likelihood estimation," Journal of mathematical Psychology 47.1 (2003): 90-100.

[10]S.K. Gehlot, Ravendra Singh, "Trajectory Estimation of a moving charged particle: An application of least square estimation (LSE) approach", IEEE, Medcom 2014, pp 262-265, Nov 2014.

[11]Saea A. Van De Geer, Least Squares Estimation, Encyclopaedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science, Volume 2, pp. 10411045.

[12]C. Radhakrishnan Rao. Linear Statistical Inference and Its Applications,John Wiley Sons 1965.

[13]H. L. Van Trees, "Optimum array processing – Part IV of detection, estimation, and modulation theory", John Wiley, 2002

[14]Gholami, M.R.; Gezici, S.; Strom, E.G.; Rydstrom, M., "Positioning algorithms for cooperative networks in the presence of an unknown turn-around time," Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), 2011 IEEE 12th International Workshop on , vol., no., pp.166,170, 26-29 June 2011.

[15]Voinov, Vassily ; Nikulin, Mikhail (1993). Unbiased estimators and their applications. 1: Univariate case. Dordrect: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-2382-3.

[16]Zachariah, D.; Stoica, P., "Cramer-Rao Bound Analog of Bayes' Rule [Lecture Notes]," Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE , vol.32, no.2, pp.164,168, March 2015.

[17]Frieden, B. Roy. Science from Fisher information: a unification. Cambridge University Press, 2004.